68 Am. U. L. Rev. 823 (2019).

* Boeing International Professor and Founding Director of the Cannabis Law & Policy Project, University of Washington School of Law; J.D., Stanford Law School; M.A., Philosophy, Arizona State University; B.A., History, University of Massachusetts, Boston.  The Author thanks Nephi Stella, Karen Boxx, Mowgli Holmes, Hilary Bricken, Daniel Shortt, and Jason Liu.

** Associate Professor of Law, University of Missouri School of Law; J.D., Duke Law School; M.A., History, University of California Los Angeles; B.A., History, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.  The Author thanks Alissa Jijon and Patricia Zettler for comments and James Kopfensteiner (University of Missouri Class of 2018) for research assistance.

As more states legalize cannabis, the push to “deschedule” it from the Controlled Substances Act is gaining momentum. At the same time, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved the first conventional drug containing a cannabinoid derived from cannabis—cannabidiol (CBD) for two rare seizure disorders.  This would all seem to bode well for proponents of full federal legalization of medical cannabis.  But some traditional providers are wary of drug companies pulling medical cannabis into the regular small molecule drug development system.  The FDA’s focus on precise analytical characterization and on individual active and inactive ingredients may be fundamentally inconsistent with the “entourage effects” theory of medical cannabis.  Traditional providers may believe that descheduling cannabis would free them to promote and distribute their products free of federal intervention, both locally and nationally. Other producers appear to assume that descheduling would facilitate a robust market in cannabis-based edibles anddietary supplements. In fact, neither of these things is true.  If cannabis were descheduled, the FDA’s complex and comprehensive regulatory frameworkgoverning foods, drugs, and dietary supplements would preclude much of this anticipated commerce.  For example, any medical claims about cannabis would require the seller to complete the rigorous new drug approval process, the cost of which will be prohibitive for most current traditional providers.  Likely also unexpected to some, there is no pathway forward for conventional foods containing cannabis constituents, with the (probably exclusive) exception of certain hemp seed ingredients, if those foods cross state lines. And it will certainly come as a shock to many that federal law already prohibits the sale of dietary supplements containing CBD—including those already on the market as well as those made from “hemp,” which has recently been descheduled under the 2018 Farm Bill. This Article describes in detail the surprising reach of the FDA and then outlines three modest, but legal, pathways forward for cannabis-based products in a world where cannabis has been descheduled.


As a number of states have legalized cannabis—at least for state law purposes—a quasi-licit above-ground industry has emerged.1State Medical Marijuana Laws, Nat’l Conf. St. Legislatures (Oct. 17, 2018), https://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-medical-marijuana-laws.  This industry is enormous, with estimates into the billions of dollars of annual revenues.2See, e.g., Thomas Pellechia, Legal Cannabis Industry Poised for Big Growth, in North America and Around the World, Forbes (Mar. 1, 2018), https://www.forbes.com/ sites/thomaspellechia/2018/03/01/double-digit-billions-puts-north-america-in-the-w orldwide-cannabis-market-lead (estimating North American industry revenues in 2017 at $9.2 billion).  Along with this economic opportunity, one of the selling points of legalization for voters is that an illicit and often dangerous underground industry will be transformed into a safe and well-regulated one.3See, e.g., 2013 Wash. Legis. Serv. Ch. 3 § 1 (West) (“The people intend to stop treating adult marijuana use as a crime and try a new approach that: . . . (3) Takes marijuana out of the hands of illegal drug organizations and brings it under a tightly regulated, state-licensed system similar to that for controlling hard alcohol.”).

Yet, “marihuana”—defined to include much of what is derived from the plant Cannabis sativa L.421 U.S.C. § 802(16) (2012).  For further details on the origin and exact scope of this definition, see infra Part II.—is still illegal under the federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA).521 U.S.C. §§ 801–904.  “Marihuana” is expressly listed in Schedule I of the CSA,6See § 812(c), Schedule I(c)(10). which means there were government findings, credible or not,7Am. Coll. Physicians, Supporting Research into the Therapeutic Role of Marijuana:  An Addendum by the Health and Public Policy Committee 17 (2008) (“Considering the evidence available today about the potential therapeutic benefits and risks associated with marijuana and its cannabinoids, ACP believes that it is time to review the evidence to determine whether reclassification is appropriate.”). that:  (1) it “has a high potential for abuse”; (2) it “has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States”; and (3) “[t]here is a lack of accepted safety” for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.8§ 812(b)(1)(A)–(C); see also infra Part II.  Tetrahydrocannabinols (THC) and cannabimimetic agents (compounds that mimic the effects of cannabinoids) are also listed in Schedule I.9See § 812(c); § 812(d)(2)(A).  Manufacturing, distributing, dispensing, or possessing with the intent to do any of the foregoing is allowed under the CSA only for individuals who have been issued a so-called “Schedule I license.”10§§ 821–823; Synthetic Drugs, Real Danger:  Hearing Before the Subcomm. on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Sec. & Investigations of the H. Comm. on the Judiciary, 114th Cong. 4 (2016) (statement of David Earl Nichols, Ph.D., Adjunct Professor of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC) (“Obtaining a Schedule I license is not a trivial matter . . . .  [T]he investigator must have a strong personal belief that something useful will be discovered by their research that is of sufficient importance to justify the regulatory demands of a Schedule I license. To wit, a researcher must submit an application to the DEA that includes the investigator’s scientific credentials, the description of the laboratory, a precise description of the work to be carried out, listing the specific substance to be used, and a calculation of how much substance will be needed and for how long.  If the DEA determines that the . . . license is justified, there is then an inspection of the storage facility . . . to ensure that the controlled substance cannot be easily diverted . . . .  Inventory and use must be documented, and there is a license fee for most non-public institutions.”).  These licenses are rare and hard to come by.11See Nat’l Acads. Scis. Eng’g & Med., The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research 378–84 (2017) [hereinafter The Health Effects of Cannabis].

The Department of Justice (DOJ), and more specifically, the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) generally enforce the CSA.12Brian Yeh, Cong. Research Serv., RL34635, The Controlled Substances Act:  Regulatory Requirements1 (2012).  Their actions with regard to illicit trade in drugs are usually perceived to be straightforward criminal prosecutions:  “Miami Vice”-or “Cops”-style drug busts.13See Sean M. O’Connor & Jason Liu, The Risks of Clouded Property Title for Cannabis Business Owners, Investors, and Creditors, 3 Tex. A&M J. Prop. L. 67, 68 (2016).  There is a misperception that such enforcement is not available in states with recreational or medical marijuana laws, at least with regard to state law-compliant cannabis enterprises.14See id. (“[B]ecause federal law does not distinguish between shadowy underworld drug deals and the clean, well-lit places licensed and regulated under the new state-legal regimes, all of the forfeiture rules apply equally to both.  Accordingly, the façade of legitimacy and regularity rapidly attaching to the most well-intentioned state-legal cannabis businesses is, of course, quite illusory.”).  The reality here again is further complicated by current DOJ policy and by an annual congressional appropriations rider prohibiting the use of funds for cannabis prosecution.15See infra Part II.  Aside from cannabis drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and cannabis production and research licensed by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), all cannabis production, distribution, or sale violate federal criminal law under the CSA.

State decriminalization of medical marijuana (MMJ) in the 1990s began flipping this dynamic.16See id. at 71–72.  At the same time, even the federal government was forced to provide cannabis to some patients under “compassionate use” programs.17See infra Part III.  Accordingly, the DOJ and the DEA did not act as aggressively as they could have in relation to cooperatives and dispensaries operating under first California’s, and then other states’, MMJ quasi-legal frameworks.18See infra Part II.  An uneasy partial truce was established for patients who grew their own MMJ for personal use because this was a grey area under the CSA as it did not involve distributing or dispensing the substance to others, and the “manufacturing” and possession was not for the purpose of distributing or dispensing to others either.

This was the opening for cooperatives, and ultimately, dispensaries:  if a patient can grow cannabis for her own personal use, then she should also be able to share resources for growing with other MMJ patients.  Accepting this premise, courts also had difficulty settling on anything like a uniform minimum level of patient-member participation, and so soon, effectively non-working members were allowed.19See Alex Kreit, Reflections on Medical Marijuana Prosecutions and the Duty to Seek Justice, 89 Denv. U. L. Rev. 1027, 1041–44 (2012) (discussing various court decisions on how much participation is required of a member of a marijuana cooperative). All that was needed was the minor formality of a member card showing one had joined the co-op, perhaps with a doctor’s note recommending cannabis to alleviate some symptoms.20See Gerald Caplan, Medical Marijuana:  A Study of Unintended Consequences, 43 McGeorge L. Rev. 127, 144 (“Routinely identifying individuals who are growing more than the number of plants legally allowed, who purchased a fake recommendation or forged one themselves . . . is impossible, except by happenstance.”).  Thus, case law soon established a free-speech right for doctors to recommend, but not necessarily “prescribe,” cannabis to clients.  E.g., Conant v. Walters, 309 F.3d 629, 639 (9th Cir. 2002) (“[W]hether a doctor-patient discussion of medical marijuana constitutes a ‘recommendation’ depends largely on the meaning the patient attributes to the doctor’s words.  This is not permissible under the First Amendment.”).  Excellent summaries of this history can be found elsewhere.  See generally Douglas A. Berman & Alex Kreit, Marijuana Law and Policy (forthcoming 2019); Robert A. Mikos, Marijuana Law, Policy, and Authority (2017); Kathleen Ferraiolo, From Killer Weed to Popular Medicine:  The Evolution of American Drug Control Policy, 1937–2000, 19 J. Pol’y. Hist. 147 (2007).

With state MMJ laws enabling these quasi-licit cannabis enterprises—effectively commercial businesses—and DOJ and DEA restraining their enforcement efforts under the CSA, other federal regulatory agencies began treating these operations as any other (licit) businesses.  Nevertheless, cannabis and illicit drug operations can violate a host of other federal laws and regulations beyond the CSA—e.g., dumping pollutants, dangerous work environments (to put it mildly), using banned or improper pesticides, and discriminatory employment and business practices.21Stephen Lee, Workplace Violations Found in Marijuana Sector, Bloomberg L.:  Occupational Safety (Aug. 27, 2015), https://www.bloomberglaw.com/document/ X60LREIK000000 (reporting on workplace hazards associated with the marijuana industry); Bart Schaneman, Costly Employment-Related Lawsuits on the Rise in Cannabis Industry as MJ Workforce Grows, Marijuana Bus. Daily (Oct. 18, 2017), https://mjbizdaily.com/costly-employment-related-lawsuits-rise-cannabis-industry-mj-workforce-grows (reporting on “an increasing number of lawsuits over everything from wrongful termination and discrimination to sexual harassment”); Shannon Service, Pot: Not so Green After All?, PBS:  Need to Know (May 21, 2010), https://www.pbs.org/wnet/need-to-know/environment/pot-not-so-green-after-all (discussing the marijuana industry’s environmental impact, including diesel spills and toxic pesticides that wash into rivers).  However, the respective federal agencies enforcing these laws traditionally have not been on the front lines with the DEA, busting down doors of derelict warehouses.22See Lee, supra note 21 (explaining that “because marijuana remains an illegal narcotic at the federal level, the EPA hasn’t taken action, leaving growers in murky legal terrain,” and reporting that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration is collaborating with Colorado’s health department on “advisory efforts”).  The exception might be the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), which has had a surprisingly prominent role taking down gangsters and criminals for tax evasion since the early twentieth century.  See, e.g., United States v. Hurley, 957 F.2d 1, 2, 7–8 (1st Cir. 1992) (upholding a jury verdict that found two lawyers guilty of conspiracy to defraud the Internal Revenue Service because they had helped a drug smuggler hide millions of dollars earned from distributing marijuana and hashish). To be clear, many MMJ co-ops and dispensaries appear to be well-run and compliant with laws and regulations.  And some that were not fully compliant may have been the result of good faith lack of knowledge, especially given their largely unregulated status.

At the same time, MMJ regime enterprises were fairly restrained affairs with little open advertising or public promotion.  The physical sites of dispensaries were generally nondescript, with little to indicate what was going on inside other than the ubiquitous green crosses seen in robust MMJ states like California, Oregon, and Washington. Accordingly, federal agencies of all kinds took a hands-off approach to these ventures, leaving regulation to the states.

Our focus here is on the FDA.  Under MMJ regimes, whatever medical or health claims were being made occurred either in semi-private conversations in dispensaries, among users in person, or in chat-room-type environments on the internet.  With little evident interstate activity—mandated, in fact, by the state MMJ laws themselves—the FDA’s jurisdiction under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA)2321 U.S.C. §§ 301–399h (2012). was limited. Enacted under the Commerce Clause,24U.S. Const. art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (“The Congress shall have Power . . . [t]o regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes . . . .”). the FDCA permits the FDA to regulate only products that travel or have traveled in interstate commerce, as discussed in more detail in Part III.  However, with both recreational and medical cannabis businesses emboldened by state legalization, overt marketing and sales activities in interstate commerce prompted the FDA to take enforcement action, also as reviewed in Part III.  One of the Authors has had significant discussions with the state-legal recreational and medical industries and can report that FDA regulation is poorly understood and largely ignored for the time being.25See Lee, supra note 21(“Because growers, processors and sellers in states where marijuana is now legal have operated outside the law for so long, they have learned to ignore federal and state regulations . . . .”).

At the same time, this grey market for medical cannabis under state MMJ regimes was highly advantageous for those who wished “to do good and do well” in the industry.26See Terra Carver, Executive Director, Humboldt County Growers Alliance, Infocast (Oct. 3, 2018), https://infocastinc.com/market-insights/cannabis/terra-carver-humboldt-county-growers-alliance (commenting that “the combined medical and adult-use [marijuana] market may be worth $5 billion by 2019 in California alone,” and mentioning that cannabis use appears to displace opioid use to some extent).  While recent state regimes for legal recreational cannabis have heavily taxed various levels of the production value chain, state MMJ regimes generally did not tax medical cannabis.27See, e.g., Taxes Due on Marijuana, Wash. Dep’t of Revenue, https://dor.wa.gov/print/46568 (last visited Feb. 5, 2019).  But see Lisa Rough, Cannabis Tax Rates:  A State by State Guide, Leafly, https://www.leafly.com/news /industry/marijuana-tax-rates-by-state(listing Alaska, California, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, Vermont, and West Virginia among the states that did not tax medical cannabis as of late 2017).  Part of this was because no sales of goods were supposed to be occurring:  again, the idea was that all patients would participate in a co-op-type structure to produce communally the product they all used, or patients would produce solely for their personal medical cannabis use.28See, e.g., Wash. Rev. Code § 69.51A.085 (2011) (repealed 2016) (providing that “qualifying patients” could participate in collective gardens for growing cannabis, but prohibiting more than ten qualifying patients per garden along with the delivery of cannabis to anyone other than the collective garden’s qualifying patients).  Nonetheless, with low tax, little to no regulations that regular commercial businesses are subject to, and a growing influx of essentially recreational users, the dispensaries did quite well.29From Less than $100K to Millions of Dollars, Annual Marijuana Dispensary Revenues Run the Gamut, Marijuana Bus. Daily (Apr. 10, 2013), https://mjbizdaily.com/from-less-than-100k-to-millions-of-dollars-annual-marijuana-dispensary-revenues-run-the-gamut (discussing the self-reported annual revenues of MMJ dispensaries, with 15% reporting less than $100,000; 27% reporting between $100,000 and $250,000; 18% reporting between $250,000 and $500,000; 15% reporting between $500,000 and $1 million; and 25% reporting over $1 million).  Further, long-standing loyalty to producers and dispensaries that provided consistent strains with perceived or quantifiable effects—for both medical and recreational purposes—ensured stable customer bases.30See, e.g., What Do Marijuana Strain Names Mean?  Does it make a Difference?, GrownRogue, https://www.grownrogue.com/meaning-marijuana-strain-names (last visited Feb. 5, 2019) (describing how customers look for quality and consistency when checking their preferred strains and dispensaries, often relying on characteristics such as flower, aroma, taste, and how the strains make them feel).

Unsurprisingly then, many of these enterprises were wary of—or actively opposed—legalization efforts for recreational use.31Evan Puschak, Why the Medical Marijuana Industry Opposes Full Legalization, MSNBC:  The Last Word with Lawrence O’Donnell (July 29, 2013, 11:07 PM), https://www.msnbc.com/the-last-word/why-the-medical-marijuana-industry-opposes. Correctly, they sensed that legalization would bring full regulation and taxation,32See, e.g., 2013 Wash. Legis. Serv. Ch. 3 (I.M. 502) §§ 26–27 (West). not to mention broad free-market competition and a commoditized vice approach to cannabis (in which cannabis would be regulated and sold similar to alcohol and tobacco).33Vice Wars:  Tobacco, Alcohol and the Rise of Big Marijuana, NBC News (Nov. 22, 2014, 1:46 PM), https://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/legal-pot/vice-wars-tobacco-alcohol-rise-big-marijuana-n253801.  None of this would have been particularly helpful to medical cannabis enterprises, although one could argue that legalization at the federal level would remove the ongoing threat of prosecution under the CSA.  Some medical cannabis proponents thus focused on rescheduling cannabis so that it would be treated like a prescription drug, rather than a narcotic with “no currently accepted medical use.”3421 U.S.C. § 812(b)(1)(B) (2012); see also Grace Wallack & John Hudak, Marijuana Rescheduling:  A Partial Prescription for Policy Change, 14 Ohio St. J. Crim. L. 207, 208 (2016) (noting arguments that a Schedule change for marijuana might “better reflect[] the medical, safety, chemical, and pharmacological realities of the substance”).  Rescheduling theoretically could have kept it from becoming a commoditized vice substance, while also opening a path to federally-compliant prescriptions under FDA and DEA regulations.

State legalization for recreational purposes has indeed not been great for medical cannabis businesses.  First, there has been a flood of commercial cannabis businesses into states that have legalized cannabis, which has been tempered only by limits on the number of grower, processor, and retailer licenses that these states are willing to grant.35See, e.g., Marijuana Licensing, Wash. State Liquor & Cannabis Bd., https://lcb.wa.gov/mjlicense/marijuana-licensing (last visited Feb. 5, 2019). Second, in some states, medical cannabis businesses have had to become licensed for the new regulated and taxed recreational systems.36See, e.g., id.  Third, and most challengingly, the FDA has increased its enforcement in light of widespread public advertisements and promotions, including medical claims, by commercial medical cannabis outfits.37See infra Part III.  Unlike these commercial medical cannabis outfits, the dispensaries had been very low-key and discrete in their public advertising and promotions, largely because this was also a grey area under state MMJ laws.38See The Health Effects of Cannabis, supra note 11, at 68–69, 72–73 (“Medical cannabis law and policies vary greatly in terms of the regulations governing supply and use . . . .  Some states protect and regulate the operation of storefronts known as dispensaries . . . .  Some dispensaries openly advertise their wares and services to patients at point of sale, with others aggressively promoting their business to the general public.”).  With general legalization in various states allowing for a higher and more explicit level of branding, advertising, marketing, and promotion than was allowed in the medical cannabis regimes, the race is now on to sell one’s expertise, services, and product attributes in whatever way one can.

The end result may be the FDA cracking down hard—perhaps in conjunction with state governments—on medical claims and any positioning of cannabis products as medical without successful completion of the arduous and expensive new drug application (NDA) process.39See infra Section III.A. Further, given the high degree of reproductive variability of cannabis, as indicated by new genetic tests being done on a range of samples,40See infra Part II. it is unlikely that the psychoactive part of cannabis in its natural state, and the way in which it is traditionally rolled and smoked, would give anywhere near the predictable and quantifiable product and clinical test results needed to satisfy the FDA under the NDA process.41See infra Section III.A.  While proponents of medical cannabis may assume that the flower could simply be marketed as a dietary supplement outside the new drug framework, dietary supplement options are quite limited.42See infra Section III.C.  Nor is marketing of medical cannabis in food an easy alternative, given the FDA’s complex framework for food regulation and its interaction with the new drug framework.43See infra Section III.B.

After all, there were very good reasons why Congress passed the Pure Food and Drugs Act in 1906,44Pub. L. No. 59-384, 34 Stat. 768 (1906). and its successor, the FDCA, in 1938.45Pub. L. No. 75-717, 52 Stat. 1040 (1938) (codified as amended at 21 U.S.C. §§ 301–399h (2012)).  Reformers at the turn of the last century and in the early decades of the twenty-first century sought to protect consumers from tainted, adulterated, toxic, mislabeled, or ineffective “patent medicines” and proverbial snake oils.46See Erika Lietzan, The Drug Innovation Paradox, 83 Mo. L. Rev. 39, 46–50 (2018) (cautioning that “‘patent medicines’ . . . should not be confused with ‘patented’ drugs”).  This is not to disparage or discredit medical cannabis as a general matter, but rather to say that there is good reason to require clinical proof that any particular product or process has the actual therapeutic benefits that are claimed (i.e., that the product or process is effective), and that it is safe enough for the indicated use.  The question of federal regulation of medical cannabis is thus complex.

This Article focuses only on regulation under the FDCA, in the event that cannabis is descheduled from the CSA, and for certain products derived from the newly descheduled “hemp.”47See supra notes 225–28, 406.  While some might suspect that a Congress willing to deschedule cannabis would be willing to amend the FDCA to allow the free-form expansion of medical cannabis production, marketing, and sale that some proponents and commentators advocate,48Frank Robison, Going Green:  Legal Considerations for Marijuana Investors and Entrepreneurs, 6 Am. U. Bus. L. Rev. 57, 79–80 (2016) (“[T]he marijuana industry’s best, perhaps only, hope to achieve commercial parity with other industries is for the federal government to eliminate marijuana as a Schedule I controlled substance.  This, however, will alter the legal and commercial landscape altogether . . . .”). this does not necessarily follow.  Indeed, FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb laid out the compelling reasons why FDA should continue to regulate not only hemp products, but any product containing substances classified as a drug by the FDA—which includes THC and cannabidiol (CBD)—or for which medical claims are made, regardless of their CSA status.49Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., on Signing of the Agriculture Improvement Act and the agency’s regulation of products containing cannabis and cannabis-derived compounds (Dec. 20, 2018) [hereinafter Statement on Signing of the Agriculture Improvement Act], https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/ Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm628988.htm?utm; see also infra Part III.  The Article chooses descheduling over rescheduling because it calls the relevant questions of FDA regulation into starker relief and because it may be more politically feasible than conventional wisdom holds—especially with both Democrats and Republicans now espousing states’ rights.50Tom Angell, Democrats Forming Marijuana Legalization Consensus, Forbes, Feb. 15, 2018, https://www.forbes.com/sites/tomangell/2018/02/15/democrats-forming-consensus-on-marijuana-legalization (noting support for marijuana legalization among Democratic and Republican members of Congress and quoting Senate Democratic Leader Chuck Schumer’s statement that “the States should continue to be the labs of democracy when it comes to recreational & medical marijuana”).  Further, the analysis for rescheduling is effectively contained within that for descheduling.  In particular, many Democrats and progressives would like to see the federal government allow state legal cannabis systems to expand with no threat of intervention, even as President Trump has signaled a willingness to allow the states to decide for themselves (with states’ rights long a plank in Republican party politics).51See id.; Evan Halper, Trump Administration Abandons Crackdown on Legal Marijuana, L.A. Times (Apr. 13, 2018), https://www.latimes.com/politics/la-na-pol-marijuana-trump-20180413-story.html (reporting that “[t]he Trump administration [wa]s abandoning a Justice Department threat to crack down on recreational marijuana in states where it is legal,” and that Republican Senator Cory Gardner of Colorado, who had been “incensed” by the Department’s threat, “said he was assured that the federal government would not interfere with his state’s marijuana industry and that Trump would champion a new law that gives states the authority to set their own pot policies”).

Some notes on terminology are warranted.  First, this Article uses “cannabis” to cover the plant and its products except where referring to the defined legal category of “marihuana” under the CSA.5221 U.S.C. § 802(16).. “Marijuana” has unfortunate discriminatory and racial undertones to many and is seen by some as imposed by anti-immigrant and, pointedly, anti-Mexican activists in the early twentieth century.53See Matt Thompson, The Mysterious History of ‘Marijuana,’ Nat’l Pub. Radio:  Code Switch (July 22, 2013, 11:46 AM), https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2013/07/14/201981025/the-mysterious-history-of-marijuana (“Numerous accounts say that ‘marijuana’ came into popular usage in the U.S. in the early 20th century because anti-cannabis factions wanted to underscore the drug’s ‘Mexican-ness.’  It was meant to play off of anti-immigrant sentiments.”); see also Alex Halperin, Marijuana:  Is it Time to Stop using a Word with Racist Roots?, Guardian, (Jan. 29, 2018), https://www.theguardian.com/society/2018/jan/29/marijuana-name-cannabis-racism (“For the prohibitionists of nearly a century ago, the exotic-sounding word emphasized the drug’s foreignness to white Americans and appealed to the xenophobia of the time. As with other racist memes, a common refrain was that marijuana would lead to miscegenation. Harry Anslinger, the bureaucrat who led the prohibition effort, is credited as saying back then: ‘There are 100,000 total marijuana smokers in the US, and most are Negroes, Hispanics, Filipinos and entertainers. Their Satanic music, jazz and swing result from marijuana use. This marijuana causes white women to seek sexual relations with Negroes, entertainers and any others.’”).  “Cannabis,” by contrast, is the older and more widely accepted name of the plant, and indeed forms the basis of the scientific names of the two major strains or species (speciation is contested):  Cannabis sativa L. and Cannabis indica Lam.54See Ethan B. Russo, Review, History of Cannabis and Its Preparations in Saga, Science, and Sobriquet, 4 Chemistry & Biodiversity 1614, 1616–19 (2007) (discussing the taxonomy of cannabis); Thompson, supra note 55 (“Throughout the 19th century, news reports and medical journal articles almost always use the plant’s formal name, cannabis.”).  Further, states, like Washington, with advanced medical and recreational cannabis regimes have switched over to “cannabis” as well.55For example, in 2011, the Washington legislature amended its MMJ statute, renaming the section “The Washington state medical use of cannabis act,” and replacing the word marijuana with cannabis throughout the statute.  See 2011 Wash. Legis. Serv. Ch. 181 (West) (including amendments to Wash. Rev. Code § 69.51A.005 and § 69.51A.900).  However, although the legislature has retained the statute’s title—”the Washington state medical use of cannabis act”—in 2015, an amendment switched cannabis back to marijuana throughout the statute.  See Wash. Rev. Code§§ 69.51A.005–69.51A.900 (2015); 2015 Wash. Legis. Serv. Ch. 70 (West).

Second, this Article uses “medical cannabis” to refer to growth, production, processing, sale, and use of cannabis or its derivatives for health or medical benefits.  Similar to “cannabis,” we use “medical marijuana” or “MMJ” only when referring to the legal, statutory categories created under state laws.

Third, “descheduling” means congressional amendment of the CSA to remove “marihuana”—or at least some parts of that broad statutory term—from any of the restricted Schedules of controlled substances.  Descheduling should also include DEA action to remove medically relevant components of cannabis, such as THC and CBD, as well as synthetically-produced analogues, that it has placed in any of the controlled substances Schedules under its statutory authority granted under the CSA.  Full descheduling would mean that (medical) cannabis is no longer a controlled substance at any level.

Fourth, “rescheduling” means that Congress amends the CSA to place “marihuana” into a less restrictive Schedule.  Likewise, for full rescheduling, the DEA would also move any medically relevant natural or synthetic cannabis components that it has placed on Schedule I down to the same or lower Schedule as “marihuana” would now occupy.  Rescheduling means that (medical) cannabis would still be a controlled substance, but it would be easier to pursue clinical trials and new drug approvals with compounds derived from the plant.  Further, over-the-counter (non-prescription) status for those drugs would at least be theoretically possible (although unlikely).

Fifth, “traditional medical cannabis” means use of the plant in more or less natural form with minimal processing. This includes not only the familiar rolling and smoking of resinous flower or buds of the plant, but also simple processes such as making butter, oils, or tinctures. It can be contrasted with what might be called the pharmaceutical approach in which a particular molecule is identified and then purified or isolated, often through more sophisticated means.

Ultimately, we find only three pathways for “federal-legal” medical cannabis after descheduling, should that occur. Importantly, this includes CBD products that contain little to no THC and even those derived from “hemp.”  Many traditional medical cannabis practitioners will be surprised and likely caught off guard by this.  It will not be a free-for-all wherein providers can say or do anything they want. At the same time, these pathways are likely sound and provide a useful roadmap for medical cannabis researchers and practitioners of all stripes. The first pathway is “intrastate” product produced and marketed or sold exclusively within a single state’s borders, which will be regulated primarily by state law.  The second is small-molecule-drug product following completion of a conventional new drug research and development program and FDA approval of an NDA. The third is to test and market, after a premarket submission to the FDA, an herbal dietary supplement that does not include any ingredient or substance currently approved as a drug or even in drug clinical trials—which rules out any products containing THC or CBD.  The relative distribution among these pathways will turn on factors, such as perceived or clinically measured efficacy, price, time to market, side effects, and preferences within the patient and healthcare communities.56For instance, for less regulated herbal products that seem more “natural” to consumers, or for finished pharmaceutical products known to have been tested in randomized controlled clinical trials.  See infra Conclusion.

This Article proceeds by giving a basic overview of the medical cannabis industry and its products in Part I.  The CSA’s treatment of “marihuana,” including the mechanisms and effects of descheduling and rescheduling, are covered in Part II. The FDA and the FDCA regulations relevant to medical cannabis—and especially possible pathways to compliant production, marketing, and distribution—are covered in Part III. Finally, this Article sets out the pathways and discusses ways forward for medical cannabis under full descheduling in Part IV.

 I.    History and Overview of the Medical Cannabis Industry

Claims are made for medical applications of cannabis plants and their parts going back thousands of years in different parts of the world.57See Russo, supra note 54, at 1621–41.  The Cannabis sativa L. strain may have been one of the first wild plants cultivated by humans.58See id. at 1616 (noting that “sativa” was added to the name cannabis to designate its status as “cultivated” as early as the 1500s).  Early uses were through the raw seeds, oils, and fibers,59See id. at 1626–27, 1630, 1636. with other preparations following.  There is controversy over whether the various suspected cannabis uses and references are to the same plant, however, or to different strains.60See id. at 1627, 1631 (endnotes omitted) (“Cannabis has over 50 synonyms in India, and has been discussed in detail, along with its attendant controversy. Some authorities have questioned whether bhang was a psychoactive at all, and others have questioned whether references to cannabis in Indian literature are reliable prior to the 11th century c.e . . . .  Nyberg noted that the word bang, while still signifying cannabis in contemporary Iran, has also been applied to other plants throughout history.” (citations omitted)).  Ailments treated included pain, migraine, fungal infections, psychological distress, anxiety or grief, ear infections, tumors, abscesses, and more.61See id. at 1624–26.  There is debate over the constituent active-ingredient components of the plants used in these ancient times, but as a general matter, the selective breeding for cannabis containing high levels of THC—the substance that produces the “high” from cannabis use—is of a recent nature.62See id. at 1619–20, 1627, 1631.  Thus, older plants likely had a more balanced profile across the various substances explained below and would have produced different experiences from much of the recreational cannabis sold today.63Id. at 1628–37.

Cannabis’s medical use is better documented in the Middle Ages and up into the modern era in different parts of the world, than it was for ancient use claims.64See id.; Antonio Zuardi, History of Cannabis as Medicine:  A Review, 28 Braz. J. Psychiatry 153, 153–55 (2006). However, with no knowledge of the constituent molecules, physicians had little way of precisely developing and administering cannabis-based remedies other than in the same manner as all other materia medica herbal remedies of the time.65See Russo, supra note 54, at 1628; Zuardi, supra note 64, at 153, 156; see also Materia medica, Oxford English Dictionary (3d ed. 2001) (defining materia medicaas “[t]he remedial substances and preparations used in the practice of medicine”).  Over time, the intoxicating properties of cannabis also began creating some concerns for particular social or religious groups, such as under Muslim sharia law.66See Russo, supra note 54, at 1627 (“[B]y this time, Egyptian medicine had become Islamic medicine . . . . [W]hile many derided its psychoactive effects on the basis of a ban on intoxicants in Muslim sharia law, a begrudging acknowledgement was frequently made of its abundant medical attributes.”).  There often seemed to be less focus on the intoxicating aspects of cannabis in ancient and medieval use references and more focus on the nutritive or medical properties of its seeds and oil, than we might expected today when the focus is primarily on the THC high.67See generally id.  However, the Scythians and other Central Asian groups seemed to have already been burning or heating leaves, flowers, or seeds in open fires or on heated dishes to release vapors that were intoxicating.68See Zuardi, supra note 64, at 154.  We now know that heating is necessary to transform the relevant precursor chemicals from their natural state in the plant into the form that induces a high in humans.69The scientific process is “decarboxylation,” during which a carboxyl group (-COOH) is removed and replaced by a hydrogen atom (H).  In the process, the plant sheds CO2.  In addition to heating, decarboxylation can be accomplished by other means, including through premature aging by exposure to ultraviolet light.  See, e.g., Stacie Carrier, The Process of Decarboxylation, Canabo Med. Clinic (Oct. 20, 2017), https://www.canabomedicalclinic.com/the-process-of-decarboxylation.

Not surprisingly, substantial lore built up around medical, recreational, and spiritual uses of cannabis.70See Zuardi, supra note 64, at 154–55 (describing the medical and spiritual uses of cannabis by various cultures).  This lore continues to provide some of the basis for today’s natural or herbal medical cannabis industry.71See, e.g., Ethan Russo, Cannabis in India:  Ancient Lore and Modern Medicine, in Cannabinoids as Therapeutics 1, 11–12 (R. Mechoulam ed., 2005).  In part, this segment of the industry has been bolstered by the continued interest in ancient and non-Western holistic medicine that began in earnest in the late twentieth century.72Sneha Mantri, History of Medicine:  Holistic Medicine and the Western Medical Tradition, 10 Am. Med. Ass’n J. Ethics 177, 179 (2008).

The benefits of this lore-based, medical cannabis attracted the attention of Western-trained physicians and scientists as early as the nineteenth century.  For example, an Irish doctor working in Calcutta in 1840 utilized the anti-convulsant properties of cannabis to treat tetanus.73See W.B. O’Shaughnessy, New Remedy for Tetanus and Other Convulsive Disorders, 23 Bos. Med. Surgical J. 153 (1840).  Additionally, a French physician treated mental disorders with cannabis by 1845.74See Ethan Russo, Cognoscenti of Cannabis I:  Jacques-Joseph Moreau, 1 Cannabis Therapeutics 85, 86 (2001) (discussing the work of Moreau, including his 1845 book, Du Hachisch et de L’alienation Mentale:  Etudes Psychologiques, which documented his use of cannabis to treat mental illness).  In 1851, the third edition of the United States Pharmacopoeia75Nat’l Med. Convention, The Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America (Philadelphia, Lippincot, Grambo, & Co. 1851).(USP)—then simply a compendium of recognized drugs—listed “extractum cannabis,” which it described as “[a]n alcoholic extract of the dried tops of Cannabis sativa—variety Indica.”76Id. at 50.  Subsequent editions explained how to prepare extracts and tinctures of dried cannabis flowers.77E.g., Nat’l Convention for Revising the Pharmacopoeia, The Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America 145, 318 (Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott & Co. 1864).  However, as mentioned above, anti-Mexican sentiment in the early twentieth century led to a demonization of “marihuana,” as the immigrants referred to it.78See, e.g., Eric Schlosser, Reefer Madness, Atlantic (Aug. 1994), https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1994/08/reefer-madness/303476 (describing how Texas police officers claimed that marijuana caused a lust for blood and incited violent crime while rumors also spread that Mexicans were distributing “killer weed” to American schoolchildren). This story is complicated by the facts that the Mexican government was already working to control it through criminal statutes and that the peasants most likely to be fleeing to the United States following upheaval caused by the Mexican Revolution of 1910 seemed the most terrified by what the drug could do.79See Eric Schlosser, Reefer Madness:  Sex, Drugs, and Cheap Labor in the American Black Market 19 (2003); Schlosser, supra note 78.  Thus, while there is evidence of news stories of the time focusing on “crazed” Mexicans committing violent crimes and debauchery under the influence of substances using terms we believe to correspond to strains or species of cannabis, there were also stories of other minorities, suspect groups such as “jazz musicians,” and other “undesirables,” engaged in such actions too.  Whatever the actual mix of motives, it is clear that “marihuana” became a focal point of social, political, and legal concern in this period, which led to legislation.

At the federal level, medical cannabis was regulated under the minimalist provisions of the Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906.80Pure Food and Drugs Act, Pub. L. No. 59-384, § 8, 34 Stat. 768, 770 (1906) (repealed by 21 U.S.C. § 1-5 (1940)) (deeming an article “misbranded” if the label does not include the “quantity or proportion of any . . . cannabis indica, . . . or any derivative or preparation of any such substances contained therein”), repealed by Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938, Pub. L. No. 75-717, 52 Stat. 1040 (codified as amended at 21 U.S.C. §§ 301–399h (2012)).  Notably, Eli Lilly & Co. marketed a regulated cannabis formulation as an antispasmodic, sedative, and narcotic.81See, e.g., Alison Mack & Janet Joy, Marijuana as Medicine?:  The Science Beyond the Controversy 18 (2001) (reproducing images from 1913 Eli Lilly product labels).  But it was not until the Marihuana Tax Act of 193782Pub. L. No. 75-238, ch. 553, 50 Stat. 551 (1937). that cannabis was singled out as something more pernicious than other herbal remedies of the time.83Ferraiolo, supra note 20, at 148.  Rapidly disappearing was media coverage of the medical benefits of cannabis.  Some individual states in fact were banning cannabis outright, and most made it available under prescription only.84See id. at 153 (describing the Federal Bureau of Narcotics support for the Uniform Narcotic Act, which made marijuana available only by prescription); see also, e.g., 1913 Cal. Stat. 692, 697 §§ 8a–b (1913) (amending the California Poison Act of 1907 and making the possession of hemp or its derivatives a misdemeanor).

Nonetheless, cannabis research continued and major advances towards identifying and isolating important constituents of the plant took place in the 1930s and 1940s.85See Roger G. Pertwee, Cannabinoid Pharmacology:  The First 66 Years, 147 Brit. J. Pharmacology S163, S163 (2006).  Two key substances were isolated from hemp oil:  cannabinol (CBN) and CBD.86Id.  The latter was present in a mixture of two THC variants that induced “marihuana-like” physiological results in dogs.87The Health Effects of Cannabis, supra note 11, at 46 (citing R. Adams et al., Structure of Cannabidiol, a Product Isolated from the Marihuana Extract of Minnesota Wild Hemp, 62 J. Am. Chem. Soc’y 196 (1940); R. Adams et al., Conversion of Cannabidiol to a Product with Marihuana Activity, 62 J. Am. Chem. Soc’y 2245 (1940)).  The exact molecular structure of these variants remained elusive, however.  A single THC variant was soon isolated from cannabis resin.88Id. (citing H.J. Wollner, Isolation of a Physiologically Active Tetrahydrocannibinol from Cannabis sativa Resin, 64 J. Am. Chem. Soc’y 26 (1942)).  But in many ways, THC was still a predicted, and not fully realized, molecular construct.

By the 1940s, significant segments of the population had hardened against “marihuana” for any use.89See Ferraiolo, supra note 20, at 153–54 (describing the public shift in perceptions of drugs and marijuana, spearheaded by Anslinger, and the lack of marijuana defenders).  Much of this resulted from the work of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, which, among other things, released the low budget propaganda film, Reefer Madness,90Reefer Madness (George A. Hirliman Productions 1938) (also screened under different titles across the United States in the 1940s–1950s). and publicized the “marijuana menace” through allies in the newspaper industry.91Ferraiolo, supra note 20, at 156.  In 1942, the United States Pharmacopeia Convention removed cannabis from the twelfth edition of the USP, a compendium now formally recognized under the FDCA of 1938.92Nat’l Acad. Sci., Marijuana and Medicine:  Assessing the Science Base 16 (Janet E. Joy et al. eds., 1999) [hereinafter Marijuana and Medicine]; The Health Effects of Cannabis, supra note 11, at 43. With this, the medical cannabis industry moved underground.93Ferraiolo, supra note 20, at 154–55.  Few mainstream researchers pursued it anymore.  Unfortunately, this also sent the traditional medical cannabis community back to the largely lore-based trial and error practices it had used before the nineteenth century.94See supra notes 70–71and accompanying text.

The next set of major advances in cannabis research came in the 1960s and 1970s.  Overshadowing them all was the discovery of the elusive structure of the THC variant in cannabis that generates its intoxicating effect.95Pertwee, supra note 85, at S164.  The development of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging had enabled researchers to conclusively identify what became known as D9-THC.96The Health Effects of Cannabis, supra note 11, at 46 (citing Y. Gaoni and R. Mechoulam, Isolation, Structure and Partial Synthesis of an Active Constituent of Hashish, 86 J. Am. Chem. Soc’y 1646 (1964)).  But such new tools also led to the discovery of exact molecular structures of other key cannabis substances including CBD,97See Ethan B. Russo, Taming THC:  Potential Cannabis Synergy and Phytocannabinoid-terpenoid Entourage Effects, 163 Brit. J. Pharmacology 1344, 1345 (2011) (citing R. Mechoulam & Y. Shvo, Hashish—I:  The Structure of Cannabidiol, 19 Tetrahedron2073 (1963)). cannabigerol (CBG),98Id. (citing Y. Gaoni & R. Mechoulam, The Structure and Function of Cannabigerol, a New Hashish Constituent, 1 Proc. Chemistry Soc’y 82 (1964)). cannabichromene,99Id. (citing Y. Gaoni & R. Mechoulam, Cannabichromene, a New Active Principle in Hashish, 1 Chemical Comm. 20 (1966)). cannabidivarin,100Id. (citing L. Vollner et al., Hashish. XX. Cannabidivarin, a New Hashish Constituent, 3 Tetrahedron Lett. 145 (1969)). tetrahydrocannabivarin,101Id. (citing E.W. Gill et al., Preliminary Experiments on the Chemistry and Pharmacology of Cannabis, 228 Nature 134 (1970)). and CBN.102R.E. Musty et al., Interactions of D9-Tetrahydrocannibinol and Cannabinol in Man, in 2 The Pharmacology of Marihuana 559, 559–63 (M.C. Braude and S. Sarza, eds., 1976).  The enactment of the CSA in 1970—with its placement of “marihuana,” THC, and “cannabimimetic agents” in Schedule I—erected serious barriers to research on cannabis.

Nonetheless, in the 1980s and 1990s, the mammalian cannabinoid system came into view.  The idea of cannabinoid receptors on cells was postulated based on demonstrations of the selective binding to brain membranes of synthetic molecules designed to mimic the actions of D9-THC.103The Health Effects of Cannabis, supra note 11, at 46 (citing William A. Devane et al., Determination and Characterization of a Cannabinoid Receptor in Rat Brain, 34 Molecular Pharmacology 605 (1988)).  A “receptor” is a protein, typically on the surface of a cell.104See Receptor, Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary 1760 (19th ed. 2001).  Binding to a receptor triggers changes in the cell’s activity and, in this case, causes psychological changes such as euphoria and shifts in sensory perception.105See, e.g., Mack & Joy, supra note 81, at 58–59 (discussing potential psychological changes and effects due to marijuana).  The actual existence of this first receptor, CB1, was corroborated in 1990.106The Health Effects of Cannabis, supra note 11, at 46 (citing Miles Herkenham et al., Cannabinoid Receptor Localization in Brain, 87 Proc. Nat’l Acad. Sci. U.S. 1932 (1990); Lisa A. Matsudo et al., Structure of a Cannabinoid Receptor and Functional Expression of the Cloned cDNA, 346 Nature 561 (1990)).  In 1993, a second receptor, CB2, was cloned and identified.107Id. (citing Sean Munro et al., Molecular Characterization of a Peripheral Receptor for Cannabinoids, 365 Nature 61 (1993)).  Endocannabinoids—cannabinoids produced by a mammal’s own body—were also discovered, suggesting that endocannabinoid systems are inherent to at least some mammals, and not merely a response to external triggers such as D9-THC or CBD.108See Russo, supra note 97, at 1354 (citing William A. Devane et al., Isolation and Structure of a Brain Constituent that Binds to the Cannabinoid Receptor, 258 Science 1946 (1992); Raphael Mechoulam et al., Identification of an Endogenous 2-Monoglyceride, Present in Canine Gut, that Binds to Cannabinoid Receptors, 50 Biochemical Pharmacology 83 (1995); Takayuki Sugiura, 2-Arachidonoylglycerol:  A Possible Endogenous Cannabinoid Receptor Ligand in Brain, 215 Biochemical Biophysical Res. Comm. 89 (1995)).  This discovery also led to one bold hypothesis that humans and cannabis co-evolved.109See Russo, supra note 54, at 1614 (citing J.M. McPartland & G.W. Guy, The Evolution of Cannabis and Coevolution with the Cannabinoid Receptor—A Hypothesis, in The Medical Use of Cannabis and Cannabinoids 71–101 (G.W. Guy, B.A. Whittle & P.J. Robson, eds., 2004)).

The fascination with the dramatic effects of THC unfortunately led to a near-exclusive research focus on that set of substances, and particularly D9-THC.110See Russo, supra note 97, at 1345.  This may have also stemmed from the dominant Western small molecule pharmaceutical approach in which “active ingredients” are identified, isolated, purified, and concentrated for therapeutic delivery, as other substances in source plants and other natural materials are largely ignored.111See Si-Yuan Pan et al., New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM’s Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics, 2013 Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Med. 1, 2–3 (2013).  This approach has led to many notable successes where modified concentrations of substances, or new chemicals synthesized from them, provide much greater therapeutic benefit than available from the naturally-occurring versions. For example, acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, was synthesized in the mid-nineteenth century from substances that had been identified in willow leaves and bark.112Dawn Connelly, A History of Aspirin, Pharmaceutical J. (Sep. 26, 2014), http s://www.pharmaceutical-journal.com/news-and-analysis/infographics/a-history-of-aspirin.  The latter had been used therapeutically for thousands of years.113Id.  But this success can crowd out research on the interactions and effects of the full range of chemicals—whether known or considered “active” or “inactive” ingredients—in herbal remedies generally.  In the traditional medical cannabis sector, and among some researchers, this holistic approach to cannabis as an herbal remedy has been called the “entourage effect.”114The term and concept “entourage effect” (sometimes “ensemble effect”) refers to the synergy and interaction between multiple molecules and compounds within cannabis and the interplay these chemicals have with one another when producing effects on the body, as opposed to simply considering the effects of a single active compound, like THC, in isolation.  The term and concept were introduced to the scientific literature by Ben-Shabat, Mechoulam, and others.  See Shimon Ben-Shabat et al., An Entourage Effect:  Inactive Endogenous Fatty Acid Glycerol Esters Enhance 2-Arachidonoyl-glycerol Cannabinoid Activity, 353 European J. Pharmacology 23, 136 (1998); Raphael Mechoulam & Shimon Ben-Shabat, From Gan-zi-gun-nuto Anandamide and 2-Arachidonoyl-glycerol: The Ongoing Story of Cannabis, 16 Nat. Product Rep. 131, 136 (1999); see also Russo, supra note 97, at 1344.

This dichotomy between the small molecule pharmaceutical and whole plant herbal approaches underlies the fundamental tension in medical cannabis today.  Drug companies generally seek to identify a single active ingredient that can be developed into a drug product, which in turn can be studied for safety and effectiveness in rigorously controlled clinical trials for purposes of the FDA’s NDA process.115See infra Part III.  This drug development model reflects the analytic framework in which most of Western science and technology has proceeded for the past few hundred years. Only by carefully isolating and testing a particular phenomenon can we learn anything useful about it.  This approach has been focused to finer and finer levels of matter.  Traditional medical cannabis providers instead operate in a world in which not only do they insist that preparations from whole portions of the plant—such as the flower—are essential for therapeutic benefit, but they also believe that different strains of cannabis produce demonstrably different effects.116A similar set of perspectives that has been in the popular media recently centers on the debate over “whole foods,” calories, and sugars in our diet.  See generally, e.g., Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma:  A Natural History of Four Meals (2007) (analyzing the ethos and processes behind three modes of food-chains:  “processed,” “organic,” and “neo-Paleolithic”).  One side has taken the view that “calories are calories” and “sugars are sugars.”  The other side opines that the form of our food, and its calories, and sugars, matters tremendously for metabolism, health, and fitness.  Both sides can cite some current scientific research.

This Article does not seek to resolve any of these debates, but rather is intended to help all sides in the medical cannabis debates understand how the FDA will likely approach the matter.  This Article also seeks to sketch three pathways in which we think medical cannabis can proceed, compliant with FDA law, in the event descheduling occurs. We set out these pathways in Parts III and IV, which arguably fall on differing sides of this debate—or at least, they may appeal in different ways depending on one’s place within that debate.

The remainder of this Part reviews the current state of scientific understanding of cannabis, its constituents, and their effects on the human body.  Cannabis plants sit within the genus Cannabisand family Cannabaceae.117The Health Effects of Cannabis, supra note 11, at 44 (citing Mohammed Kuddus et al., Cannabis sativa:  An Ancient Wild Edible Plant of India, 25 Emirates J. Food & Agric. 736, 737 (2013)). The latter includes the genera Cannabis and Humulus (hops), which has led to interesting notes in the cannabis and beer industries about similarities.118Id.  Most of the taxonomic debate concerns whether there are two or more species within the genus—usually cannabis sativa and cannabis indica—or simply one (cannabis sativa) with different strains, varietals, or subspecies.119Id. (citing Lucas Larsen, Botany:  The Cultivation of Weed, 525 Nature S4 (Sept. 24, 2015); Robert Clarke & Mark Merlin, Cannabis:  Evolution and Ethnobotany (1st ed. 2016); Karl W. Hillig, Genetic Evidence for Speciation of Cannabis (Cannabaceae), 52 Genetic Resources & Crop Evolution 161 (2005); Ernest Small, Evolution and Classification of Cannabis sativa (Marijuana, Hemp) in Relation to Human Utilization, 81 Botanical Rev. 189 (2015).  An alternate account finds at least one other type as a possible species:  Cannabis ruderalis Jan.120Russo, supra note 54, at 1616 (citing Richard Evans Schultes et al., Cannabis:  An Example of Taxonomic Neglect, 23 Botanical Museum Leaflets Harv. U. 337 (1974); Loran C. Anderson, Leaf Variation Among Cannabis Species from a Controlled Garden, 28 Botanical Museum Leaflets Harv. U. 61 (1980)).  In this schema:  Cannabis sativa L. are “tall, branched plants for fiber, seed, or psychoactive use”;Cannabis indica Lam. are “short, broad-leafed plants” from the Indian subcontinent; and Cannabis ruderalis Jan. are “short, unbranched ‘roadside’ plants usually weak in cannabinoids.”121Id.

Much of the uncertainty in classification appears to be from the hardy proliferation of the plant, which has resulted in many varieties, both cultivated and as found in the wild.122See, e.g., id. Again, this Article does not seek to resolve scientific or practitioner debates, but three points suffice in summary. First, the wide and distinctive varieties of cannabis—whether at a species level or lower—give ample grounds for traditional medical cannabis practitioners to promote the importance of strains and their entourage effects.123See infra notes 177–79 and accompanying text.  In other words, the argument is not just that certain key chemicals like THC vary among strains, but also that many chemicals vary (i.e., that a compound may have the same molecular structure but work differently in the body depending on the varying other chemicals in the cannabis strain in which it appears).124Id.  Accordingly, from this view, using whole-plant derived product is critical, rather than an isolated strain-specific constituent like THC.125See infra note 179 and accompanying text.  Second, as companies like Phylos Bioscience sequence the DNA of popular strains—and indeed seek to populate a “galaxy” of certified types—it has become clear that much of what is being passed as a particular strain in the traditional medical cannabis industry is far from uniform or exact.126See Why Phylos Certified?, Phylos, https://phylos.bio/phylos-certified (last visited Feb. 5, 2019) (“Cannabis plants are currently sold under unreliable names (not every “Blue Dream” is the same plant variety), meaning inconsistent experiences for everyone—from farmers to consumers.”).  And third, data generated by these genomic sequencers should enable more definitive answers to the classification debate in the near future.127See supra notes 122–25 and accompanying text.

Across all cannabis plants, sophisticated traditional medical cannabis practitioners and researchers identify three broad classes of substances that may generate medical or health benefits:  cannabinoids; terpenoids; and flavonoids.128See The Health Effects of Cannabis, supra note 11, at 44 (citing American Herbal Pharmacopoeia (2013)); Russo, supra note 97, at 1344.  The first class is the most well-known as it contains THC and CBD.  But significant confusion exists, especially as to the “psychoactive” attributes of molecules within this class.129See The Health Effects of Cannabis, supra note 11, at 47.  The problem likely stems from the fact that all cannabinoids interact with the mammalian endocannabinoid system and other parts of the central nervous system.130See id. at 46–48.  Thus, all cannabinoids are neurologically active. However, THC stands out as a cannabinoid whose partial agonist binding to CB1receptors causes the noted psychological responses of euphoria, sensory perception shifts, and other characteristics referred to as getting high or stoned.131Id. at 51.  Trying to distinguish synonymous terms like “psychoactive” and “psychotropic” does not help.132These terms are nearly identical and trying to differentiate between them would not help determine how chemicals like THC and CBD work differently on a molecular level.  Compare Psychoactive, Merriam Webster (defining “psychoactive” as “affecting the mind or behavior”), https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/psychoactive (last visited Feb. 5, 2019), with Psychotropic, Merriam Webster (defining “psychotropic” as “acting on the mind”), https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/psychotropic (last visited Feb. 5, 2019).  Instead, this Article refers to all cannabinoids as “neuro-active” and to THC as “psychoactive.”  One further segmentation of cannabinoids is important:  “phytocannabinoids” are those produced by plants through natural photosynthesis; “synthetic cannabinoids” are those produced artificially; “cannabimimetic agents” are also produced artificially but are designed to produce the results of a certain cannabinoid (usually THC) and not necessarily replicate its exact structure; and, as mentioned above, “endocannabinoids” are those produced by the mammalian body through its own natural processes.133See generally Vincenzo di Marzo, Opinion, New Approaches and Challenges to Targeting the Endocannabinoid System, 17 Nature Revs.:  Drug Discovery 623 (2018); Debra A. Kendall & Guillermo A. Yudowski, Cannabinoid Receptors in the Central Nervous System: Their Signaling and Roles in Disease, 10 Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 1 (Jan. 2017); see also The Health Effects of Cannabis, supra note 11, at 44; Russo, supra note 97, at 1344.

The endocannabinoid system is now seen as “one of the key regulatory mechanisms in the brain controlling multiple events such as mood, pain, perception, learning and memory among others.”134Kendall & Yudowski, supra note 133, at 3.  The system may also play protective and reparative roles in traumatic brain injury and neurodegeneration.135Id. Mammalian bodies produce endocannabinoids on-demand.136Id.

At the same time, estimates of phytocannabinoids occurring in cannabis range from sixty to more than 100.137Russo, supra note 97, at 1346; The Health Effects of Cannabis, supra note 11, at 44.  The two most important at the moment, THC and CBD, are generated from the common parent precursor CBG.138Mei Wang et al., Decarboxylation Study of Acidic Cannabinoids:  A Novel Approach Using Ultra-High-Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Photodiode Array-Mass Spectrometry, 1 Cannabis & Cannabinoid Res. 262, 262 (2016).  To be accurate, the acid version of each of these cannabinoids is expressed in cannabis itself (e.g., D9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid).139Id. at 263.  In such form, they are inert for most of the effects we associate them with. Ingesting in this form would not induce the desired effects.  They must be decarboxylated first, which in the case of traditional recreational and medical cannabis is generally accomplished through heating, resulting in the forms of THC and CBD that produce the sought-after effects.140See Russo, supra note 97, at 1345.

The two different sets of cannabinoid receptors on various cells throughout the human body also play a key role in the effects of cannabinoids.  Cannabinoid binding to CB1receptors can result in the psychoactive mood and perceptions shifts associated with getting high, as well as with therapeutic benefits.141See Kendall & Yudowski, supra note 133, at 1–2.  By contrast, CB2receptors are found predominantly within cells and tissues of the immune system and the gut.142See, e.g., K.L. Wright et al., Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors in the Gastrointestinal Tract:  A Regulatory System in States of Inflammation, 153 Brit. J. Pharmacology 263, 263 (2008).  Cannabinoids binding to them may regulate inflammation, pain, and even neurodegeneration.143Id.  Many of the cannabinoids interact directly or indirectly with both CB1and CB2receptors.144See Kendall & Yudowski, supra note 133, at 4.  Even more complexly, cannabinoids like THC and CBD can effectively interact with each other through the CB receptors.145Id.  For example, CBD appears to modulate the stronger and more negative effects of THC, such as anxiety.146See Russo, supra note 97, at 1348.  The mechanism and extent of this interaction remains the subject of considerable ongoing research with results that have not yet been reconciled.  See, e.g., C. Klein et al., Cannabidiol Potentiates D9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Behavioral Effects and Alters THC Pharmacokinetics During Acute and Chronic Treatment in Adolescent Rats, 218 Libertas Academica 443, 443 (2011) (finding that pretreatment with CBD intensified all behavioral effects of THC including anxiety); Daniel Thomas Malone et al., Cannabidiol Reverses the Reduction in Social Interaction Produced by Low Dose D9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Rats, 93 Pharmacology Biochemistry Behav. 91, 91 (2009) (finding that pretreatment with CBD reversed THC-induced decreases in interactions).  Notably, Sativex, approved in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, but not in the United States, contains both D9-THC and CBD.147Sativex is an oromucosal spray that, as noted, contains both D9-THC and cannabidiol.  The United Kingdom’s medicine regulator approved Sativex in June 2010 to improve symptoms related to muscle stiffness or spasm caused by multiple sclerosis.  SeeU.K. Meds. & Healthcare Prods. Regulatory Agency, Public Assessment Report Decentralised Procedure:  Sativex Oromucosal Spray 2 (2014).  The drug is now approved in 25 countries but has not yet been approved in the United States. Sativex®, GW Pharmaceuticals, https://www.gwpharm.com/healthcare-professionals/sativex (last visited Feb. 5, 2019). This Article discuss other new drug products derived from cannabis in Part IV.

Terpenoids, the key components of essential oils, are synthesized in cannabis as well.148Russo, supra note 97, at 1345, 1349 (noting that terpenoids were “previously conceived as the quintessential fifth element, ‘life force’ or spirit . . . , and form the largest group of plant chemicals”). For more detail on the role of terpenes in essential oils, see Sangita Kumari et al., EssOilDB:  A Database of Essential Oils Reflecting Terpene Composition and Variability in the Plant Kingdom, 2014 Database 1, 2 (Jan. 2014). Cannabis contains over 200 terpenoids.149Russo, supra note 97, at 1349.  It is terpenoids and not cannabinoids that give cannabis its distinctive aroma.150Id.  While there is debate about the efficacy of terpenoids for therapeutic uses, increased interest has correlated with studies showing measurable benefits in this century.151Id. at 1350–52 (citing studies that indicate terpenoids can act as sleep aids, memory aids, anticonvulsants, antimalarials, and increase serotonin).  The primary terpenoids in cannabis that may produce beneficial effects, alone or in conjunction with a cannabinoid, are:  Limonene,a-Pinene, b-Myrcene, Linalool, b-Carophyllene, Carophyllene Oxide, Nerolidol, and Phytol.152Id. at 1351.

Flavonoids are metabolites that play a role in pigmentation, UV filtration, nitrogen fixation, and other functions in plants.153Ulrike Mathesius, Flavonoid Functions in Plants and Their Interactions with Other Organisms, 7 Plants 30, 30–31 (June 2018), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027123/pdf/plants-07-00030.pdf.  They are sometimes referred to as bioflavonoids.154See, e.g., Drugs for Human Use Containing Rutin, Quercetin, Hesperidin, or Bioflavonoids, 33 Fed. Reg. 818 (Jan. 23, 1968).  There appear to be twenty or more flavonoids in cannabis.155Patrick Bennett, What Are Cannabis Flavonoids and What Do They Do?, Leafly (Feb. 8, 2018), https://www.leafly.com/news/cannabis-101/what-are-marijuana-flavonoids.  Those occurring only in cannabis have been called “cannaflavins.”156Id.  Flavonoids are pharmacologically active and some in the medical cannabis community believe they work in concert with terpenoids and other substances in cannabis plants.157See Angus Chen, Some of the Parts:  Is Marijuana’s “Entourage Effect” Scientifically Valid?, Sci. Am. (April 20, 2017), https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/some-of-the-parts-is-marijuana-rsquo-s-ldquo-entourage-effect-rdquo-scientifically-valid.  They are less well-studied overall, in cannabis in particular, but have become a topic of interest, especially among those who promote the entourage effect.158Id.; see also supra note 114.

At the same time, scientific researchers are not opposed to studying other cannabis substances or even potential entourage effects,159See, e.g., Russo, supra note 97, at 1349–52 (citing several studies involving cannabis terpenoids). but current supply issues severely limit such efforts.160See Chen, supra note 157.  The Schedule I status of much of the cannabis plant led the DEA and NIDA to restrict licensed research to a strain of cannabis produced by the University of Mississippi under contract with the federal government.161See The Health Effects of Cannabis, supra note 11, at 382 (explaining that the NIDA Drug Supply Program provides the only cannabis available for research); Alexander W. Campbell, The Medical Marijuana Catch-22: How the Federal Monopoly on Marijuana Research Unfairly Handicaps the Rescheduling Movement, 41 Am. J. L. & Med. 190, 200 (2015) (describing the oversight surrounding the marijuana manufacturer at the University of Mississippi and the requirements researchers must meet to use marijuana from there).  In 2013, the First Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the DEA’s denial of a license for a Massachusetts university professor to cultivate his own marijuana for medical research on the grounds that he failed to demonstrate that current cannabis supply was inadequate.  See Craker v. DEA, 714 F.3d 17, 18­–19, 29 (1st Cir. 2013).  This strain is not particularly potent nor high quality from traditional medical cannabis provider and user perspectives—even as it is deemed “research grade” by the government—and is not one used by dispensaries.162The Health Effects of Cannabis, supra note 11, at 382.  Exacerbating this problem, NIDA research cannabis is often harvested and stored in a freezer for years before being distributed to researchers, further diminishing its potency (as well as likely degrading other substances such as essential oils).163Id. at 382–83.  But even if this were a relevant strain and delivered fresh to researchers, the limit to a single strain precludes exactly the kind of cross-strain comparisons that traditional medical cannabis providers believe provides the core basis for their practice.164See Chen, supra note 157 (describing how individual cannabis growers “have long been crossing plants to develop distinctive strains that purportedly do different things”).  NIDA research cannabis also traditionally was supplied only in plant form, precluding other important research avenues that would consider the forms and modes of delivery, such as conventional edible forms waxes for smoking or vaporizing, other concentrates, oils that are sometimes ingested, and topicals).165The Health Effects of Cannabis, supra note 11, at 383.

Changes initiated in 2016 are underway, however.  NIDA began working with the University of Mississippi to at least provide strains with different concentrations of D9-THC and CBD.166Id.  Yet, this facilitates primarily research focusing on characterizing the biological activity of these two constituents, although it could also support research on the current interest in the interaction of THC and CBD.  More helpfully, DEA also changed its policy to begin accepting applications for other research-grade cannabis providers, which could result in a supply that more closely matches that of private dispensaries.167Id. at 383–84 (citing Applications to Become Registered Under the Controlled Substances Act to Manufacture Marijuana to Supply Researchers in the United States, 81 Fed. Reg. 53,846 (Aug. 12, 2016)).  However, no licenses have been granted as of publication.  In the meantime, this state of affairs appears to have driven some important medical cannabis research overseas.168See, e.g., Yardena Schwartz, The Holy Land of Medical Marijuana, U.S. News & World Rep. (Apr. 11, 2017), https://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/articles/2017-04-11/israel-is-a-global-leader-in-marijuana-research (illustrating how Israel has become a prime location for cannabis research).

Both pharmaceutical and whole flower medical cannabis researchers have targeted a number of therapeutic fields.  Some of these fields have roots in ancient practice or in the nascent pharmacological cannabis practices of the nineteenth and early twentieth century (before cannabis “prohibition”).169See supra Part I.  Pharmaceutical approaches tend to orient around cannabinoids (especially THC and CBD) and CB receptors because cannabinoids are seen as the primary “active ingredients” available from cannabis.170See Russo, supra note 97, at 1345, 1348.  To be clear, the pharmaceutical industry is not only developing drugs derived from cannabis plant material, but also from synthetic cannabinoid products.171See infra Section IV.B.1 (tracing the history of synthetic cannabis drug development in the United States).

Traditional medical cannabis practitioners and other researchers tend to pursue illnesses that might benefit from the amount of substances occurring in naturally-hybridized strains as delivered through whole flower, oils, extracts, or concentrates, the latter of which could reach pharmaceutical type levels of “active ingredients” such as CBD.172See supra notes 57–77 and accompanying text.  Further, not all traditional medical cannabis practitioners insist on whole flower-based product.  Some are fine advising pure THC concentrates (albeit, of course, in some form that does not deliver 100% THC to the patient).  At the same time, formally-trained researchers including Mowgli Holmes, at Phylos Bioscience, and Ethan Russo, formerly at GW Pharmaceuticals, are among some of the strongest proponents of entourage effect therapies.173See Chen, supra note 157. However, this does not always mean whole flower-based product.  It can also mean pharmaceutical products like Sativex, where the manufacturer combines multiple substances for an overall desired effect and not just a single active ingredient.174Id. Thus, there will likely be a continued focus on multiple cannabinoid products first, especially from the pharmaceutical side.175A recent report by the National Academies of Science, The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids, provides a useful list of the major health and disease areas being pursued by researchers (although the reader should note the varying levels of evidence for or against each:  Chronic Pain; Cancer; Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting; Anorexia and Weight Loss; Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Epilepsy; Spasticity Associated with Multiple Sclerosis or Spinal Cord Injury; Tourette Syndrome; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Huntington’s Disease; Parkinson’s Disease; Dystonia; Dementia; Glaucoma; Traumatic Brain Injury/Intracranial Hemorrhage; Addiction; Anxiety; Depression; Sleep Disorders; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses.  See The Health Effects of Cannabis, supra note 11, at xii.  Richer preparations including at least certain terpenoids may follow.  And of course, dietary supplement or whole flower-derived product will contain the full complement of the cannabinoids, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the cannabis strain’s profile.

II.    Cannabis and “Marihuana” Under the Controlled Substances Act

The CSA was enacted in 1970 as the cornerstone of a major push to combat what was perceived by some as an epidemic of “recreational” drug abuse, especially within the counterculture movement.176See Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, Pub. L. No. 91-513, 84 Stat. 1236, 1242 (codified at 21 U.S.C. §§ 801–904 (2012)); see also John Hudak, How Racism and Bias Criminalized Marijuana, Wash. Post (Apr. 28, 2014), https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/in-theory/wp/2016/04/28/how-racism-and-bias-criminalized-marijuana (arguing marijuana’s scheduling comes from President Nixon’s contempt toward the counterculture movement and racial minorities).  It consolidated various federal drug laws into a cohesive system of regulations.177See 84 Stat. at 1236–37. The system created “Schedules,” or classifications, of controlled substances with different levels of regulation.17884 Stat. at 1247–52 (codified at 21 U.S.C. § 812 (2012)).  All scheduled controlled substances are restricted in production and distribution under registration and licensing requirements promulgated by the Attorney General, ultimately delegated in large part to the DEA.179See 21 U.S.C. §§ 821–831.  The Attorney General—through the DOJ, DEA, and NIDA—licenses producers, distributors, and retailers, as well as health care providers who are able to write prescriptions for controlled substances.180See § 822; see also The Health Effects of Cannabis, supra note 11, at 378–81.. The primary purpose of the CSA was to control stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens.181H.R. Rep. No.91-1444, pt. 1, at 6–7 (1970).  The stated concern was safety and the potential for addiction and abuse.182Id. at 1.  Five Schedules were included in the statute, in descending order of restrictiveness.18321 U.S.C. § 812.

Schedule I criteria are that the substance has “a high potential for abuse,” “no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States,” and “a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.”184§§ 812(b)(1)(A)–(C).  When initially enacted, Schedule I included certain enumerated opiates, opium derivatives (including heroin and morphine), and hallucinogens (including LSD, “marihuana,“ tetrahydrocannibols, mescaline, peyote, and psilocybin).185See Pub. L. No. 91-513, 84 Stat. 1236, 1248–49 (1970).  “Cannabimimetic agents” were later added to Schedule I and include “any substance that is a cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) agonist as demonstrated by binding studies and functional assays within any of [certain enumerated molecular structural classes].”18621 U.S.C. § 812(c), Schedule I(d)(2)(A).

Schedule II criteria also include “a high potential for abuse,” but the substances have “a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions.”187§§ 812(b)(2)(A)–(B).  The substances also have a risk of “severe psychological or physical dependence” when abused.188§ 812(b)(2)(C).  As initially set out, Schedule II included both general classes of substances (including opium and opiate generally, opium poppy and poppy straw, coca leaves and preparations from them, and injectable liquid forms of methamphetamines) and certain enumerated opiates (including fentanyl and methadone).189See 84 Stat. at 1250.

Schedule III loosened all three criteria.190See 21 U.S.C. § 812(b)(3).  These substances have a potential for abuse lower than those in Schedules I and II and a risk of only “moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.”191§§ 812(b)(3)(A), (C).  Initial classes of substances included stimulants(amphetamine, phenmetrazine, non-injectable methamphetamine, and methylphenidate), certain enumerated depressants, nalorphine, and certain enumerated substances with quantified narcotic levels.192See 84 Stat. at 1251–52.

Schedule IV lowered the abuse and risk factors further. These substances have a low potential of abuse and limited physical or psychological dependence relative to substances in Schedule III.19321 U.S.C. §§ 812(b)(4)(A), (C).  A list of specific substances, including phenobarbital, was included in the initial Schedule.194See 84 Stat. at 1252.

Schedule V contains the lowest set of criteria.  Abuse potential and risk factors are set to a level below all Schedule IV substances.19521 U.S.C. §§ 812(b)(5)(A), (C).  A single class of substances that include no more than certain quantified concentrations of narcotics along with other active medical ingredients was included in the original act.196See 84 Stat. at 1252.  An example would be cough medicine with not more than 200 milligrams of codeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams of the overall substance.197See id.

The definition of “marihuana” in the CSA was simply that which had already been codified in federal statutes since the Marihuana Tax Act:

[A]ll parts of the plant Cannabis sativa L., whether growing or not; the seeds thereof; the resin extracted from any part of such plant; and every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant, its seeds or resin.  Such term does not include the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalks, oil or cake made from the seeds of such plant, any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such mature stalks (except the resin extracted therefrom), fiber, oil, or cake, or the sterilized seed of such plant which is incapable of germination.19884 Stat. at 1244 (codified at 21 U.S.C. § 802(16)); see also Marijuana Tax Act of 1937, Pub. L. No. 75-238, 50 Stat. 551 (codified at 26 U.S.C. § 4761(2)).

But with the advances in chemical and genetic research on cannabis taking place during the 1960s, the time was ripe for challenges as to whether “Cannabis sativaL.” in fact included all kinds of cannabis in the market.  Fittingly, in a 1969 decision involving LSD and hallucinogenic drug pioneer, Dr. Timothy Leary, the Supreme Court cautiously opined in dicta that “it seems that there is only one species of marihuana,” although the case was decided under the earlier Marihuana Tax Act statute and did not involve a direct challenge to the definition.199Leary v. United States, 395 U.S. 6, 50 (1969) (citing lower court testimony of Dr. Richard Schultes, Director, Harvard Botanic Museum).

A decision the next year in a Pennsylvania federal court also decided under the earlier statute, expressly rejected the defendant’s argument that “marihuana”—tied to Cannabis sativaL.—did not include Cannabis “indicia.”200United States v. Moore, 330 F. Supp. 684, 686–87 (E.D. Pa. 1970) (citing Congressional legislative history, state court decisions, and scientific authorities for support).  In its examination of the legislative history of marijuana law, the court quoted Henry J. Anslinger, the Commissioner of Narcotics, when he spoke during congressional hearings on the taxation of marijuana:

[M]arihuana is the same as Indian hemp, and is sometimes found as a residual weed, and sometimes as the result of a dissemination of birdseed.  It is known as cannabin, cannabis Americana or cannabis Sativa.  Marihuana is the Mexican term for cannabis Indicia.  We seem to have adopted the Mexican terminology, and we call it marihuana, which means good feeling.201Id. at 686 (quoting Taxation of Marihuana:  Hearings Before the Comm. on Ways and Means on H.R. 6385, 75th Cong. 18 (1937) (statement of H.J. Anslinger, Commissioner of Narcotics)).  It is unclear where Anslinger got the idea that “marihuana” meant “good feeling.”  The decision was affirmed by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, United States v. Moore, 446 F.2d 448 (3d Cir. 1971), and certiorari was denied by the U.S. Supreme Court, Moore v. United States, 406 U.S. 909 (1972) (mem.).  Subsequent federal court decisions were consistent.  See, e.g., United States v. Gaines, 489 F.2d 690, 690–91 (5th Cir. 1974) (affirming trial court’s refusal to instruct jury that the statutory definition of marihuana only included Cannabis sativaL.); United States v. King, 485 F.2d 353, 360–61 (10th Cir. 1973) (holding a government chemist’s testimony amply sufficient for prima facie case that the substance in defendant’s possession was marijuana as defined in the statute, even though the chemist did not describe the marijuana as Cannabis sativa L.); United States v. Rothberg, 351 F. Supp. 1115, 1118 (E.D.N.Y. 1972), aff’d, 480 F.2d 534 (2d Cir. 1973) (rejecting defendants’ argument that government had to prove the marijuana in question was Cannabis sativaL., rather than a different strain).

For Schedule I drugs and substances, the CSA prohibits their manufacture, distribution, or dispensation, as well as their possession with intent to manufacture, distribute, or dispense.20221 U.S.C. § 841(a)(1) (2012).  Penalties include not only fines and imprisonment,203§ 841(b). but also criminal and civil forfeiture of property to the United States.204§§ 853(a), 881(a).  Criminal forfeiture can occur where individuals have violated CSA provisions punishable by more than one year in prison. § 853(a).

The CSA specifically authorizes the Attorney General to add or remove items from the Schedules, including moving items from one Schedule to another.205§ 811(a).  Any changes must be guided by the CSA’s process, which includes requesting a scientific and medical evaluation and recommendation from the Secretary of Health and Human Services.206§ 811(b).  Responsibility for the evaluation and recommendation has been delegated, in turn, to the FDA.207See generally 21 C.F.R. § 1308; see also Controlled Substance Staff Functional Roles, FDA, https://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/CentersOffices/OfficeofMedicalProductsandTobacco/CDER (last visited Feb. 5, 2019).  The FDA must consider certain listed factors:  the drug’s actual or relative potential for abuse, scientific evidence of its pharmacological effect (if known), the state of current scientific knowledge regarding the drug, the drug’s history and current pattern of abuse, the scope (and duration and significance) of abuse, its psychic or physiological dependence liability, the risk (if any) it presents to public health, and whether it is an “immediate precursor” of another controlled substance.20821 U.S.C. §§ 811(b)–(c).  A drug or substance that is an immediate precursor of another listed drug or substance may be placed in the same or higher Schedule. § 811(e).  The Secretary must recommend a specific Schedule (or removal, if appropriate), and this recommendation is binding as to scientific and medical matters.209§ 811(b).

After the Secretary provides a recommendation, the Attorney General must use formal rulemaking to issue a final decision.210§ 811(a).  If the Secretary recommends that a drug not be controlled, the Attorney General may not control the drug.211§ 811(b).  Where the United States is a signatory to a treaty, convention, or protocol establishing controls over a particular drug or substance, the Attorney General must add that drug or substance to what is deemed the most appropriate Schedule.212§ 811(d).  This is particularly relevant where cannabis remains controlled under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.213United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, art. 28, Mar. 20, 1961, 18 U.S.T. 1407, 520 U.N.T.S. 240 (establishing an international treaty to regulate drugs, including cannabis).  The FDA must alert the Attorney General when a NDA involves a drug that has a “stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system,” and the drug appears to have abuse potential.214§ 811(f).  Any non-narcotic substance approved by the FDA to be sold over the counter shall be excluded from scheduling by regulation promulgated by the Attorney General.215§ 811(g)(1).

In 2009, in light of the increasing number of states enacting medical marijuana laws, the DOJ issued a memo (the “Ogden Memo”) that deprioritized prosecution of individuals engaged in medical cannabis production, distribution, or use, provided they were compliant with state laws and did not otherwise pose any enhanced risks.216Memorandum from Deputy Attorney Gen. David W. Ogden on Investigations & Prosecutions in States Authorizing the Medical Use of Marijuana to Selected United States Attorneys (Oct. 19. 2009), https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/o pa/legacy/2009/10/19/medical-marijuana.pdf.  In the wake of Colorado’s and Washington’s respective initiatives to state-legalize recreational cannabis, the DOJ took a cautious response.  Rather than taking any direct action against the states or officials within them tasked with implementing the recreational systems, the DOJ instead issued an internal guidance memo (the “Cole Memo”) to U.S. attorneys.217Memorandum from Deputy Attorney Gen. James M. Cole on Guidance Regarding Marijuana Enforcement to All United States Attorneys (Aug. 29, 2013) [hereinafter Cole Memo], https://www.justice.gov/iso/opa/resources/30520138291 32756857467.pdf.  It recommended that U.S. attorneys use a set of drug enforcement priorities in deciding where and how to allocate limited government resources to cannabis prosecutions.218Id.  The guidance was particularly directed to attorneys in states with “robust” state cannabis regulatory regimes.219Id. (noting that a “robust” regulatory system would address the same priorities the DOJ addresses in enforcement, including prohibiting access to minors and preventing illicit trade that funds criminal enterprises).   The eight priorities are:

(1) preventing the distribution of marijuana to minors;

(2) preventing revenue from the sale of marijuana from going to criminal enterprises, gangs, and cartels;

(3) preventing the diversion of marijuana from states where it is legal under state law in some form to other states;

(4) preventing state-authorized marijuana activity from being used as a cover or pretext for the trafficking of other illegal drugs or other illegal activity;

(5) preventing violence and the use of firearms in the cultivation and distribution of marijuana;

(6) preventing drugged driving and the exacerbation of other adverse public health consequences associated with marijuana use;

(7) preventing the growing of marijuana on public lands and the attendant public safety and environmental dangers posed by marijuana production on public lands; and

(8) preventing marijuana possession or use on federal property.220Id.

State regulatory regimes, such as that of Washington State, were set up expressly to avoid tripping any of these eight prosecution priorities, which also appeared in an earlier memo issued by Cole.221See generally Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 69.51A (West 2015).  However, in 2018, Attorney General Sessions rescinded the Cole Memo and other related guidance documents, and thus all participants in state-legal cannabis systems are now subject to the regular discretion of their local U.S. Attorney to prosecute federal crimes.222See Memorandum from Attorney Gen. Jefferson B. Sessions, III on Marijuana Enforcement to United States Attorneys (Jan. 4, 2018), https://www.justice.gov/opa/ press-release/file/1022196/download.  At the same time, the so-called Rohrabacher-Blumenauer Amendment, an appropriations bill rider that has been reapproved for the past few years,223See Pub. L. No. 115-141, § 538, 132 Stat. 348 (2018); Pub. L. No. 115-31, § 537, 131 Stat. 135, 228 (2017); Pub. L. No. 114-112, § 542, 129 Stat. 2242, 2332 (2016); Pub. L. No. 114-113, § 542, 129 Stat. 2242, 2332 (2015); Pub. L. No. 113-235, § 538, 128 Stat. 2130, 2217 (2014). prohibits the DOJ from using any congressionally-appropriated funds for cannabis prosecutions for businesses or individuals operating under robust state medical cannabis regulatory systems.224See Consolidated Appropriations Act, Pub. L. No. 115-141, § 538 (2018) (providing that no funds from the Act may be used to prevent the states listed in the Amendment from implementing their own laws legalizing, to whatever extent, the medical use of cannabis).  Notwithstanding this prohibition, the DOJ continued its prosecution of a California dispensary until a federal judge recently rebuked the DOJ’s theory of why its actions were not technically a use of appropriated funds.225United States v. Marin All. for Med. Marijuana, 139 F. Supp. 3d 1039, 1040, 1044 (N.D. Cal. 2015) (attacking the “contradiction inherent in the [DOJ’s] assertion that enjoining any one medical marijuana dispensary . . . does not impede California’s implementation of its medical marijuana laws”).  The United States entered a notice of appeal in December 2015 but moved to dismiss its appeal the following spring.  While this ruling might seem to be a major victory for regulated cannabis businesses, the DOJ’s willingness to go to court to protect its ability to prosecute cannabis CSA violations, regardless of both the guidance of the Cole Memo and the congressional appropriations bills, suggests that the DOJ is not quite ready to give up cannabis enforcement.

In a much-publicized development, Congress “legalized” hemp in 2018 by changing the definitions of marihuana and THC in the CSA.226See Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018, Pub. L. No. 115-334.  First, this reveals the dubious position of those who assert hemp as some kind of separate cousin species to cannabis. The Agriculture Improvement Act227Pub. L. No. 115-334 (2018). effectively defines hemp as Cannabis sativa with THC concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.228Id.  Second, the descheduling of “hemp” and Commissioner Gottlieb’s response underscore this Article’s thesis that descheduling cannabis will not result in the free production, marketing, and distribution that proponents have claimed.  Instead, the FDA will continue to regulate any product containing ingredients such as THC and CBD that are themselves currently regulated as drugs, as well as any medical claims made by a producer of any products, regardless of whether those products or their ingredients are scheduled under the CSA.

III.    FDA Regulation Relevant to Medical Cannabis

The FDA regulates a wide variety of medical and consumer products sold in the United States—not just foods and drugs, but also dietary supplements, medical devices, cosmetics, and tobacco products.229What Does FDA Regulate?, FDA, https://www.fda.gov/aboutfda/transparency/ basics/ucm194879.htm (last visited Feb. 5, 2019).  The agency’s authority to regulate an item is triggered when that item satisfies a definition in the primary statute implemented by the agency, the FDCA.23021 U.S.C. §§ 301–399h (2012).  For instance, if an item meets the definition of “drug” in § 201(g) the FDCA, the FDA has jurisdiction over the item and applies its rules and policies relating to drugs.231§ 321(g)(1). Throughout this Article, statutory references in the text use the provisions as numbered in the FDCA, rather than as numbered the U.S. Code.  Section 201(g) of the FDCA is codified at 21 U.S.C. § 321(g).

Two threshold points about the FDA’s jurisdiction are important to understand.  First, the statutory definitions for the various regulated categories—such as “drug” and “dietary supplement”—do not always align with common usage of the terms in question.  Their meanings have been fleshed out by the agency and courts, leading to rules that might not be evident from looking at the statute alone.232See, e.g., Meserey v. United States, 447 F. Supp. 548, 553 (D. Nev. 1977) (explaining that “[r]egardless of the actual physical effect of the product, once it is established that its intended use brings it within the drug definition, it will be deemed a drug for purposes of the Act”); United States v. Frank, 189 F. 195, 199 (S.D. Ohio 1911) (“[I]f any substance or mixture is intended to be used for the cure, mitigation, or prevention of disease of either man or other animals, it is nevertheless a drug whether it is recognized in the Pharmacopoeia . . . or not.”).  And the definitions do not take the same approach to classifying items.  For instance, one definition might consider the form of the item, another the actual use of the item, and another the claims made about the item.233See United States v. Hazel Bishop, Inc., 409 F.2d 734, 739 (2d Cir. 1969) (“Regardless of the actual physical effect of a product, it will be deemed a drug for purposes of the Act where the labeling and promotional claims intended to show uses that bring it within the drug definition.”); Meserey, 447 F. Supp. at 553 (explaining that “[r]egardless of the actual physical effect of the product,” once the product’s intended use is established as one that falls within the statute, it will be deemed a drug covered by the FDCA).  Complicating matters further, some definitions overlap.  It is possible for a single item to be both a cosmetic and a drug, for instance, and regulated under both sets of authorities.234Is It a Cosmetic, a Drug, or Both? (Or Is It Soap?), FDA, https://www.fda.gov/cosmetic s/guidanceregulation/lawsregulations/ucm074201. (last visited Feb. 5, 2019) (“[A] shampoo is a cosmetic because its intended use is to cleanse the hair. An antidandruff treatment is a drug because its intended use is to treat dandruff. Consequently, an antidandruff shampoo is both a cosmetic and a drug.”).

Second, the FDA has authority only with respect to products shipped in interstate commerce.  Congress enacted the FDCA pursuant to its power to regulate commerce among the states,235United States v. Walsh, 331 U.S. 432, 434 (1947) (“The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act rests upon the constitutional power resident in Congress to regulate interstate commerce.”). and the statutory provisions governing agency jurisdiction therefore focus on products that will be shipped in interstate commerce as well as those that have already been shipped in interstate commerce.236See, e.g., 21 U.S.C. § 331 (2012) (prohibiting certain acts, including the introduction of misbranded or adulterated foods, drugs, devices, cosmetics, or tobacco products into interstate commerce).  The agency also takes the position that it may regulate products containing components (such as ingredients) previously shipped in interstate commerce, and the courts have generally deferred to the agency on this point.237E.g., United States v. Regenerative Scis., LLC, 741 F.3d 1314, 1320–21, 1326 (D.C. Cir. 2014) (affirming the FDA’s regulatory authority over the stem cell mixture at issue on the grounds that the mixture contained certain elements, specifically the antibiotic doxycycline, that were transported through interstate commerce prior to their incorporation into the mixture).  Most medical treatments and consumer products travel in interstate commerce, so the interstate commerce requirement generally does not meaningfully constrain the FDA’s authority. After descheduling, however, some cannabis-based products could be made, sold, and used only within the borders of one state, without any component that traveled in interstate commerce.  In these cases, the FDA would have no jurisdiction.238Cf. Patricia J. Zettler, Pharmaceutical Federalism, 92 Ind. L.J. 845, 879 (2017) (“Because the FDA’s jurisdiction is limited to drugs that move in interstate commerce (including drugs with components that move in interstate commerce), medical marijuana laws could be written to avoid the FDA altogether by permitting only wholly intrastate production and sale of marijuana.”).  In this situation, however, state laws might authorize (or prohibit) sale.  As both Professor Zettler and Professor Noah have pointed out, various state laws authorized the local production and sale of laetrile for the treatment of cancer in the 1970s and 1980s, even though the FDA had not approved the treatment.  Id.; see also Lars Noah, State Affronts to Federal Primacy in the Licensure of Pharmaceutical Products, 2016 Mich. St. L. Rev. 1, 22–23 (noting that after the FDA “acted against [Laetrile] in the 1970s, numerous states legalized the use of this purported treatment for cancer”).  The interstate commerce limitation in the FDCA has similarly prompted the FDA to stay its hand with respect to purely intrastate sale of raw milk products.  See Pub. Citizen v. Heckler, 653 F. Supp. 1229, 1235 (D.D.C. 1986) (explaining that the FDA declined to ban sales of raw milk because most raw milk products were marketed exclusively in intrastate commerce and the agency did not have adequate legal authority on the facts available at the time to prohibit intrastate marketing of raw milk); Requirements Affecting Raw Milk for Human Consumption in Interstate Commerce, 52 Fed. Reg. 29,509 (Aug. 10, 1987) (to be codified at 21 C.F.R. pt. 131).

A product containing or derived from cannabis, or containing components derived from cannabis, is most likely to be regulated by the FDA as a drug, food or food additive, or dietary supplement.  The category will depend on the product.  Because the product will contain plant-derived ingredients, the FDA may also consider it a “botanical product”—but this is a descriptive term, not a regulatory classification.239CDER Small Bus. & Indus. Assistance, Botanical Drug Review, FDA/CDER SBIA Chronicles (Nov. 17, 2015), https://www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/smallbusinessassistance/ucm472934.pdf (“Botanical products may be classified as foods, dietary supplements, drugs, medical devices, or cosmetics, depending on their ‘intended use.’”).

Section II.A, discusses regulation of cannabis-based products as drugs.  Next, Section II.B and Section II.C explain how FDA would regulate a food or a dietary supplement that contained cannabis or a cannabis constituent. Section II.D considers the possibility that a product comprising cannabis or derived from cannabis might fall into a different FDA-regulated category or, indeed, outside the FDA’s purview altogether due to the statutory requirement for interstate commerce. Part IV continues the discussion of the current statutory framework (as interpreted by the FDA) and the current regulatory framework (as applied by the FDA) and, in places, note positions that the FDA might take—without exploring whether this approach would in the end withstand legal challenge.

A.    Medical Cannabis as “Drug”

Explicit or implicit claims that a product containing cannabis (or a cannabis constituent) could treat disease, or even simply affect the functioning of the body, would turn that product into a “new drug” that requires premarket approval from the FDA.240See United States v. Cruez, 144 F. Supp. 229, 230, 235 (D. Ill. 1956) (holding that because the “defendant orally represented” that an herb tonic “was a remedy for treatment of arthritis,” the tonic was considered a drug and subject to regulation under the FDCA).  The research required to support premarket approval of a new drug is expensive and time consuming,241News Release, Cost of Clinical Trials for New Drug FDA Approval are Fraction of Total Tab, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (Sept. 24, 2018) (describing study findings that FDA clinical trials cost a median of $19 million dollars, which makes up “one percent of the average total cost of developing a new drug”). and some cannabis-based products could present novel scientific and regulatory questions for the agency, potentially slowing the process and adding risk.  The agency has signaled its support for cannabis-based drugs and may be flexible with regulatory requirements in some situations, but there is no escaping the fact that the cost of taking a cannabis-based product through the FDA’s new drug approval paradigm could place this pathway out of reach for most entities providing medical cannabis today.

1.    Regulation of medical cannabis under the FDA’s new drug authorities

Any product containing or made from cannabis would be deemed a “drug” by the FDA if it were associated with medical claims.24221 U.S.C. § 321(g) (2012).  Section 201 of the FDCA defines a “drug” as any article (item) “intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man.”243§ 321(g)(1)(B).  The term “drug” also includes any article “intended to affect the structure or function of the body of man” (unless it is a food).244§ 321(g)(1)(C).  Finally, anything intended as a “component” of a drug is also a drug.245§ 321(g)(1)(D).  Under this definition, the FDA’s authority is triggered by the “intended use” of an item. “Intended use” does not refer to the subjective intent of the company selling the product, nor does it refer to the purchaser’s intentions.246See Nat’l Nutritional Foods Ass’n v. Mathews, 557 F.2d 325, 334 (2d Cir. 1977) (“In determining whether an article is a ‘drug’ because of an intended therapeutic use, the FDA is not bound by the manufacturer’s subjective claims of intent but can find . . . intent on the basis of objective evidence.”).  Instead, intended use is measured objectively—generally on the basis of the claims made by the persons legally responsible for the product in interstate commerce.24721 C.F.R. § 201.128 (2018) (stating that “intent is determined by such persons’ expressions or may be shown by the circumstances surrounding the distribution of the article”).  Thus, it usually turns on claims made in labeling, advertising, and other promotion.248The claims need not be physically attached to the product (e.g., on the label).  See Kordel v. United States, 335 U.S. 345, 350 (1948) (finding that “[o]ne article or thing is accompanied by another when it supplements or explains it”).

Drug claims need not be explicit.  If a company implies its product can be used to treat disease, the FDA may conclude that the product is a drug.249See, e.g., Patricia J. Zettler et al., Closing the Regulatory Gap for Synthetic Nicotine, 59 B.C. L. Rev. 1933, 1944 (2018) (noting that the FDA regulates smoking cessation aids as drugs based on the implied claims that they lower the risk of disease).  And the term “disease” should be understood broadly.  Any claim relating to treatment of a medical condition—for instance, easing the symptoms (such as muscle spasms) of multiple sclerosis, reducing nausea associated with chemotherapy, increasing appetite in patients with chronic illness such as HIV, or relieving pain and inflammation of arthritis—will be viewed as a drug claim by the FDA.250See United States v. Lane Labs–USA, Inc., 324 F. Supp. 2d 547, 569 (D.N.J. 2004) (finding that “through its promotional material . . . [the defendant] promoted [its products] for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of diseases, namely cancer and HIV/AIDS,” and making them drugs under the FDCA); United States v. Cruez, 144 F. Supp. 229, 230, 235 (E.D. Ill. 1956) (holding that because the “defendant orally represented” that its herb tonic “was a remedy for treatment of arthritis,” it was considered a drug under the FDCA).  These claims turn the product into a drug even if the product does not work as described.251The definition of “drug” focuses on the item’s intended use, not its actual effect in the body.

Any item is a “drug” for purposes of the FDA’s authority if it has the requisite intended use.252This is not to say, however, that anything intended to treat a disease is a drug.  FDA also regulates “devices,” which are similarly intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease or intended to affect the structure or function of the body.  21 U.S.C. § 321(h) (2012).  Such an item will be a device, rather than a drug, if (1) it is an “instrument, apparatus, implement, machine, contrivance, implant, in vitro reagent, or other similar or related article,” (2) it does not “achieve its primary intended purpose through chemical action within or on the body,” and (3) it is “not dependent upon being metabolized for the achievement of its primary intended purpose.”  Id.  The agency’s drug authority will apply whether the product is composed of dried cannabis flower, derived from a cannabinoid (or terpenoid or flavonoid), extracted from the plant, or composed of synthetic compounds identical to (or similar to) these botanically-derived alternatives.  FDA authority will apply no matter what form the product takes—whether it is sold in a tin like chewing tobacco, sold dried for smoking, sold in an oil form for use with a diffuser, or baked into a cookie.  For instance, the FDA sent a warning letter to General Mills in May 2009, concluding that because the company promoted Cheerios®Toasted Whole Grain Oat Cereal for lowering cholesterol and thus for treatment, mitigation, and prevention of coronary heart disease, the breakfast cereal was also a “drug” and would be regulated as a drug.253Warning Letter from FDA to General Mills (May 5, 2009), https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20170112195733/https://www.fda.gov/ICECI/E nforcementActions/WarningLetters/2009/ucm162943.htm.  Drug claims will establish a drug’s intended use and turn the item into a drug, for FDA purposes.

“Drug” status under the FDA framework would trigger a variety of regulatory requirements.  For instance the manufacturer would be required to comply with “current good manufacturing practices” (cGMP).25421 U.S.C. § 351(a) (2012) (deeming a drug “adulterated” if “the methods used in, or the facilities or controls used for, its manufacture, processing, packing, or holding do not conform to or are not operated and administered in conformity with current good manufacturing practice”).  The FDA’s cGMP regulations impose requirements relating to the creation and training of a quality control unit, design and features of any buildings and facilities used, design and maintenance of equipment used, production and process controls, and recordkeeping, among other things.255See generally 21 C.F.R. pt. 211 (2018).  Failure to comply with current cGMP would render the product adulterated and could expose the company to enforcement action, including criminal prosecution.256See 21 U.S.C. § 331(a), § 332, § 333.

Also, the FDA would have jurisdiction over the product’s “labeling,” meaning any “written, printed, or graphic materials” associated with the product.257§ 321(m) (defining labeling as “all labels and other written, printed, or graphic matter (1) upon any article or any of its containers or wrappers, or (2) accompanying such article”).  If the agency concluded the product could be sold over the counter,258See infra Section III.C. the manufacturer would need to comply with the agency’s nonprescription drug labeling regulations and, among other things, generally include a “Drug Facts” panel on the outside container.259See 21 C.F.R. § 201.66(c).  If the FDA instead concluded that prescriptions would be needed, the company would need to comply with the agency’s prescription drug labeling rules.260See infra Section III.A.3.  The agency could also take enforcement action if any labeling—written, printed, or graphic materials—were “false or misleading in any particular.”  This would include taking action if the labeling omitted material information, such as the consequences from customary or usual use of the product.26121 U.S.C. §§ 321(n), 352(a).  Again, these rules would apply simply because the product bore a medical claim and therefore became a “drug”—no matter what form the product took.

The FDA would almost certainly also deem a cannabis drug to be a “new drug,” which is a separate statutory category requiring premarket approval.  A drug is a “new drug” unless two things are true:  (1) it is “generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling thereof,” and (2) it has been marketed for a material time and to a material extent under those conditions.262§ 321(p).  Conventionally, this is referred to as being “generally recognized . . . as safe and effective” or “GRASE.”263Id.  The FDA determines whether each product is GRASE, conducting the inquiry product by product, rather than active ingredient by active ingredient.264See United States v. Generix Drug Corp., 460 U.S. 453, 459 (1983) (concluding that the term “drug” refers to “entire drug products, complete with active and inactive ingredients”).  And the inquiry is specific to the conditions described in that product’s labeling—its intended use, as well as its route of administration, dosage form, and strength.26521 U.S.C. § 321(p) (defining a drug as a new drug if it is not GRASE “under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling thereof”).  In other words, the specific drug product (not cannabis itself, or cannabis for a particular type of use, such as pain relief) must be GRASE.  If it is not, the product is a new drug, which means it cannot be shipped in interstate commerce without either (1) an approved NDA, which permits commercial marketing, or (2) effective investigational new drug application (IND), which permits testing in humans.266§ 355(a).

The FDA has consistently treated cannabis-based drugs as “new drugs” under the FDCA.  For instance, in the 1970s, the agency permitted INDs for the use of cannabis to treat a variety of ailments, including refractory glaucoma and anorexia associated with AIDS.267Mack & Joy, supra note 81, at 159–61.  Although the IND regulatory mechanism normally governs clinical trials, the INDs permitted here were for compassionate use programs.  Unlike clinical trials, these programs were not intended to generate information for purposes of new drug approval.  They were instead designed primarily to permit treatment of a patient’s disease or condition.268The government established the program initially to settle a civil lawsuit brought by Robert Randall, who sought cannabis for treatment of his glaucoma.  The government eventually agreed to supply medical cannabis—in cigarette form—to several other people through the same mechanism.  Kuromiya v. United States, 78 F. Supp. 2d 367, 368 (E.D. Pa. 1999); see also Moira Gibbons, The Cannabis Conundrum:  Medication v. Regulation, 24 Health Law. 1, 5 (2011).  The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), cultivated and distributed the cannabis.  Mack & Joy, supra note 81, at 160.  While these early “treatment INDs” are no longer active, the FDA has since permitted dozens of INDs for true clinical trials of cannabis and cannabis-based products.269The program shut down in 1991, but the government continued to supply the thirteen patients that it had approved by that time.  Kuromiya, 78 F. Supp. 2d at 370; Mack & Joy, supra note 81, at 160.  For a discussion of current clinical trials, see infra Section IV.B.  In addition, the FDA has approved three NDAs for synthetic cannabinoids as well as one NDA for a naturally derived cannabinoid drug product.270See infra Section IV.A.

In view of these precedents, the FDA would likely conclude that any drug containing or derived from cannabis is a new drug.271In November 2017, the FDA received a citizen petition asking it to confirm that cannabis and THC are not only drugs but also new drugs—that is, not generally recognized as safe and effective.  See Drug Watch Int’l, Inc. Citizen Petition, No. FDA-2017-P-6692 (Nov. 21, 2017), https://www.regulations.gov/document?D=FDA-2017-P-6692-0001.  The petition relies on the fact that, at the time of its filing, the FDA had approved three synthetic cannabinoid drugs under the new drug provisions.  Id. at 4.  On July 2, 2018, the FDA denied the citizen petition, refusing to issue a “negative monograph specifically stating that unapproved new OTC marijuana and THC products are not GRAS/E and [] subject to” regulation, but nonetheless finding that “these products are ‘new drugs’” under the FDCA.  Response from FDA to Drug Watch Int’l, Inc., No. FDA-2017-P-6692-0042 (July 2, 2018), https://www.regulations.gov/ document?D=FDA-2017-P-6692-0042.  Although a drug may be exempt from the FDA’s new drug authorities, it is unlikely that either exemption would cover a drug containing or derived from cannabis.272It would still be a “drug” subject to the agency’s drug regulations, including (as noted) current good manufacturing practice and labeling requirements, and probably prescription status.  First, a particular product might be deemed GRASE and therefore not a new drug. Since the 1960s, however, the FDA has interpreted the GRASE exemption to require “the same quantity and quality of scientific evidence that is required to obtain approval of an application for the product.”27321 C.F.R. § 314.200(e)(1) (2018).  This Article describes this evidentiary burden in the next Subpart.  The Supreme Court has accepted the FDA’s approach, reasoning that any other approach would deprive the agency of jurisdiction over a drug that, if it were subject to the agency’s jurisdiction, could not be marketed.274See Weinberger v. Hynson, Westcott & Dunning, Inc., 412 U.S. 609, 631 (1973) (“[W]e cannot construe § 201(p) to deprive FDA of jurisdiction over a drug which, if subject to FDA regulation, could not be marketed because it had not passed the [FDA’s] ‘substantial evidence’ test.”).  And again, the new drug inquiry is product by product and specific to the conditions of use described in the labeling. Extensive published research on medical cannabis uses, broadly speaking, will not satisfy the standard.  The agency would expect “substantial evidence” that a particular product was safe and effective for a particular use.275Id. at 617–19.  In this case, the manufacturer might as well seek approval of a marketing application.

Second, a product might be “grandfathered,” and therefore not a new drug.  Under the original grandfather clause, a drug product on the market before passage of the FDCA in 1938 was not a “new drug” if “its labeling contained the same representations concerning the conditions of its use.”27621 U.S.C. § 321(p) (2012).  When Congress amended the statute in 1962 to require that new drug applications contain effectiveness data, it extended the grandfather clause, exempting any drug that was excluded prior to 1962, so long as its composition and labeling did not change.277Drug Amendments Act of 1962, Pub. L. No. 87-781, § 107(c), 76 Stat. 780, 789.  In effect, a drug that is not GRASE is nevertheless exempt from the new drug provisions if it was regulated under the Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906 and if its labeling at the time contained the same representations as now concerning the conditions of its use.  It would be exceptionally difficult for a company to satisfy the documentation requirements that the FDA has put in place for grandfather status.278See 21 C.F.R. § 314.200(e)(2) (providing that “[a] contention that a drug product is exempt” under § 201(p) of the act or the § 107(c) amendments must be supported by sufficient evidence).  The agency requires evidence of “past and present quantitative formulas, labeling, and evidence of marketing.”279Id.  And, like GRASE status, grandfather status is product-specific.280The FDA will not make decisions about grandfathering on a class-wide basis.  See, e.g., Response from FDA to Alston & Bird LLP, No. FDA-2012-P-0189 (Nov. 12, 2015), https://www.regulations.gov/document?D=FDA-2012-P-0189-0006 (denying petition to confirm grandfather status of cocaine hydrochloride, noting disagreement with petitioner’s premise “that a determination as to whether drug products are exempt from the new drug safety and effectiveness requirements . . . by virtue of the 1938 grandfather clause can or should be made on a class-wide (i.e., non-product-specific) basis,” and adding that “determinations with respect to ‘grandfather’ status are made on a product-specific basis”).  The FDA has rejected arguments about cannabis products to date based on the sufficiency of the evidence presented.281In 2000, the FDA rejected a petition arguing that various products prepared from “home-grown cannabis” were exempt from the “new drug” authorities under the grandfather clause.  See Klopper & Mikuriya Citizen Petition, No. FDA-1999-P-2922 (formerly Docket No. 99-1865/CP1) (May 21, 1999).  The petitioners had described specific formulations, uses, and labeling on the market prior to the 1938 statute, including formulations marketed by Parke, Davis, & Company (which included “pressed flowering tops” sold by the ounce) for analgesic purposes, spasmodic disorders, and neuralgia; extracts sold by Eli Lilly & Company as analgesics and for migraines; “flowering top of the female plant” sold by Merck to increase the appetite; and the “dried flowering tops of the female plant” sold by Squibb for epilepsy.  Id. The agency denied the petition because the petitioners had not presented evidence that the drug products for which they sought grandfather status were “the same drug products that were marketed” prior to 1938.  Response from FDA to Klopper & Mikuriya, No. FDA-1999-P-2922 (Dec. 29, 2000).  A grandfather argument must be supported by (among other things) an “exact quantitative formulation of the drug (both active and inactive ingredients).”  Id.  It must also be supported by documents to show that the labeling has not changed.  The FDA also took the position that because cannabis is a controlled substance and must bear a “C” designation in the labeling, the labeling has changed sufficiently to revoke grandfather status.  If cannabis were descheduled, the FDA could not deny grandfather status on this ground.

A still-pending petition submitted in 2011 attempts to overcome the documentation hurdles with respect to two additional products:  bulk cannabis (in pressed, loose leaf, sifted, grounded, or powdered forms) and cannabis in tincture or liquid form as manufactured and labeled by the Lloyd Brothers Corporation.  See Mikuriya & McPike Citizen Petition, No. FDA-2011-P-0671 (Sept. 9, 2011), https://www.regulations.gov/document?D=FDA-2011-P-0671-0001.  The petitioners provide details about the Lloyd Brothers distilling process, details about the company’s marketing time line, and copies of the labels showing the percentage of alcohol present.  Id.

A company need not petition the agency asking for confirmation that its product is GRASE or grandfathered.  Instead, it may reach this conclusion on the basis of evidence in its possession and proceed to market.  If the company is correct, the product is a drug subject to the FDA’s drug authorities. But the FDA is likely to disagree with this assessment for a drug containing or derived from cannabis, and a company that erred would face enforcement action—up to and including criminal prosecution.28221 U.S.C. § 333(a) (2012).  The Authors therefore assume that any commercial product containing or derived from cannabis that is intended for a medical use will require an approved NDA.283There is another possibility:  new drug status and enforcement discretion because the cannabis is undetectable. The National Drug Code Directory on the FDA’s website lists numerous marketed homeopathic drugs that list cannabis sativa as an ingredient.  See National Drug Code Directory, FDA, https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/ndc (last visited Feb. 5, 2019). Home Sweet Homeopathics, for instance, appears to market a homeopathic medicine for migraine containing “cannabis sativa 30c.”  Id. (select “labeler” from the drop down menu; then search for “Home Sweet Homeopathics”).  BioEnergetics, Inc. appears to market a homeopathic medicine for allergies containing cannabis sativa pollen.  Id. (select “labeler” from the drop down menu; then search for “BioEnergetics, Inc.”).  The practice of homeopathy assumes that disease symptoms can be cured by small doses of substances that would cause similar symptoms in healthy people. The cannabis in a homeopathic product labeled as containing diluted cannabis is likely to be undetectable.  Homeopathic medicines are nevertheless “drugs” and, indeed, likely all “new drugs” that require preapproval.  The FDA has historically exercised enforcement discretion, unless safety issues arose.  See generally FDA, Drug Products Labeled as Homeopathic: Guidance for FDA Staff and Industry (2017), https://www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/guidances/ucm589373.pdf; CPG Sec. 400.400 Conditions Under Which Homeopathic Drugs May be Marketed, FDA, https://www.fda.gov/iceci/com pliancemanuals/compliancepolicyguidancemanual/ucm074360.htm (last updated Mar. 20, 2015).  It is unlikely to exercise this discretion if the cannabis-derived active ingredient can be detectable.

2.    Pathway to market under the new drug authorities

An NDA must describe the product, including its composition and how it is made, and demonstrate that the product is safe and effective when used as described in its labeling.28421 C.F.R. § 314.50(d)(1).  An applicant describes the product and manufacturing process in the “[c]hemistry, manufacturing, and controls” (“CMC”) section of the NDA, and it substantiates the product’s safety and effectiveness with preclinical (animal and laboratory) and clinical (human) data.285§ 314.50(d)(1), 314.50(d)(5)(iv).

Some new drugs containing, or derived from, cannabis would qualify as botanical drugs, in which case they might benefit from the agency’s emerging and more flexible approach to botanical NDAs.286A botanical NDA proposes a drug containing plant-derived ingredients.  According to agency officials, interest in botanical drugs has been increasing.  Between 1982 and 2007, the agency received more than 350 requests to conduct clinical trials and requests for meetings about clinical trials.  Shaw T. Chen et al., New Therapies from Old Medicines, 26 Nature Biotech. 1077, 1077 (Oct. 2008).  The FDA has published guidance to encourage the development of botanical drugs,287See generally FDA, Botanical Drug Development:  Guidance for Industry (2016) [hereinafter Botanical Guidance]. and in 2003 it created a Botanical Review Team (BRT) to assist in review of botanical NDAs.288A reviewer from the BRT provides a “pharmacognosy review” which, among other things, evaluates the identity of the plant used in the botanical drug product, evaluates the applicant’s raw material characterization and control, and evaluates previous human experience with the botanical product.  The botanical NDA is otherwise reviewed by the same FDA scientific staff within the Office of New Drug Products (OND) as any other NDA. Chen, supra note 286, at 1077–78.  See generally FDA, Ctr. Drug Evaluation & Res., Office of Pharm. Quality, MAPP 5210.9 Rev 1, Manual of Policies and Procedures:  Review of Botanical Drug Products (2016) [hereinafter Review of Botanical Drug Products]. The guidance describes greater flexibility with respect to some application requirements, and the BRT appears to be pivotal in ensuring the agency exercises this flexibility.289See Review of Botanical Drug Products, supra note 288, at 9 (discussing the BRT’s role).  Using this more flexible approach, the FDA has now approved two botanical drugs:  Veregen (sinecatchins) for the treatment of genital and perianal warts, and Mytesi (crofelemer) for the symptomatic relief of non-infectious diarrhea in adult patients with HIV/AIDS on anti-retroviral therapy.290FDA, Ctr. for Drug Evaluation & Res., Approval Package for:  Application No. 202292Orig1s000 (2012) [hereinafter Fulyzaq Approval Package], https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2012/202292Orig1s000Approv.pdf (approving Fulyzaq); FDA, Ctr. for Drug Evaluation & Res., Approval Package for:  Application No. 21-902 (2006) [hereinafter Veregen Approval Package], https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2006/021902s000_approv.pdf (approving Veregen).  The names of these products have changed since their initial approval.  In June 2007, FDA approved a supplemental NDA to reflect a change in the nonproprietary name for Veregens from kunecatechins to sinecatchins.  See FDA, Ctr. For Drug Evaluation & Res., Approval of NDA 21-902/S-001, (June 1, 2007), https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/appletter/2007/021902s001ltr.pdf.  In March 2018, FDA approved a supplemental NDA to reflect a change in the proprietary name of Fulyzaq to Mytesi.   See FDA, Ctr. For Drug Evaluation & Res., Approval of NDA 202292/S-006 (Mar. 6, 2018), https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/ drugsatfda_docs/appletter/2018/202292Orig1s006ltr.pdf.  The text of this Article uses the current names rather than the names at the time of initial approval.

FDA officials cite the agency’s work on botanical drug development as evidence that the agency “actively” supports the development of drugs from cannabis.291Douglas C. Throckmorton, Meeting Presentation, FDA Regulation of Marijuana:  Past Actions, Future Plans (April 12, 2016), https://www.fda.gov/downloads/AboutFD A/CentersOffices/OfficeofMedicalProductsandTobacco/CDER/UCM498077.pdf.  But there are two reasons to be cautious.  First, the botanical NDA framework does not apply to drugs containing highly-purified substances simply derived from naturally occurring sources.292Botanical Guidance, supra note 287, at 1.  Many commonly-used drugs contain active ingredients derived from plant sources and subsequently are highly processed and purified.293See Kate Wong, Mother Nature’s Medicine Cabinet, Scientific American (Apr. 9, 2001), https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/mother-natures-medicine-c  (providing commons examples such as aspirin).  The FDA gives the example of paclitaxel, originally derived from an extract of the yew tree.294Botanical Guidance, supra note 287, at 2.  Paclitaxel was originally made from the bark of Taxus brevifolia, the Pacific yew tree.  Success Story:  Taxol, National Cancer Inst., https://dtp.cancer.gov/timeline/flash/success_stories/S2_taxol.htm.  Eventually a starting material could be extracted from other Taxustrees, including the common Taxus baccata (European yew).  Id.  This starting material was collected from plants cultivated in public and private parks and gardens as well as plantations in Europe.  E.g., FDA,Ctr. for Drug Evaluation & Res., NDA 20-262/S-026,Environmental Assessment and Finding of no Significant Impact for Taxol (paclitaxel) Injection (Nov. 6, 1997), https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/98/020262s026s027s028_taxol_chemr_EA_phrmr.pdf.  The agency does not consider these botanical drugs, and they do not benefit from the flexibility enjoyed by the companies that developed Veregen and Mytesi.295Veregen is made from the dried leaves of Camellia sinensis, a green tea plant, grown on specific farms.  FDA, Ctr for Drug Evaluation & Res., Application No. 21-902, Botanical Review (Sept. 15, 2006) [hereinafter Veregen Botanical Review], https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2006/021902s000_botanicalr.pdf.  The drug substance in Mytesi—crofelemer—is extracted from Croton lechleri, also known as dragon’s blood or tree’s blood, harvested from the wild in South America.  FDA, Ctr for Drug Evaluation & Res., Application No. 202292Orig1s000, Summary Review (Dec. 14, 2012) [hereinafter Fulyzaq Summary Review], https://www.acce ssdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2012/202292Orig1s000SumR.pdf. Likewise, a highly processed and purified drug derived from an extract of the cannabis plant does not enjoy the same flexibility that attaches to drugs the FDA deems botanical.  As a result, the traditional new drug development and approval paradigm described below will apply to some drug products derived from cannabis.296As this Article discusses in Part IV, the FDA recently approved a drug containing a highly purified extract of cannabis, and although the agency did not deem the drug a botanical, it invited the BRT to participate in review of the application. See Epidiolex Product Quality Review(s), infra note 571.  But it does not appear from the review documents that the applicant needed, or that the FDA exercised, the same sort of flexibility with respect to application requirements as it applied when approving Veregen and Mytesi.  The more flexible approach to development and approval of botanical drugs—also described below—may apply to others.

Second, agency documents relating to approval of Veregen and Mytesi illustrate that although the FDA may be willing to take a more flexible approach with respect to certain portions of the NDA, there is a potential for significant disputes between the BRT and the usual reviewers in the Office of New Drug.297Fulyzaq Summary Review, supra note 295; Veregen Approval Package, supra note 290.  This disagreement may require resolution by agency leadership.  The need for leadership involvement could make it risky to count on the exercise of flexibility for a cannabis-based botanical NDA and important to engage with the agency early regarding plans to file a botanical NDA.

     a.    Chemistry, manufacturing, and controls

The CMC section must describe and provide data on the composition, manufacture, and specifications of both the drug substance (active ingredient) and the finished drug product (that is, in its final form for the patient).29821 C.F.R. § 314.50(d)(1)(i)(2018).  Describing the active ingredient means describing its physical and chemical characteristics and its stability; explaining how it is made (or isolated and purified, for instance); describing the controls used during manufacturing; and laying out the specifics that are needed to ensure its identity, strength, quality, and purity.299§ 314.50(d)(1).  Describing the product also includes listing the components used in its manufacture (and identifying their manufacturer and specifications), describing the manufacturing procedures and in-process controls used, and laying out the specifications needed to ensure the product’s strength, quality, purity, potency, and bioavailability.300§ 314.50(d)(1)(ii)(a).

The primary challenges for a botanical NDA are uncertainty about the botanical drug’s active constituents, heterogeneity of the drug substance, and inconsistency from batch-to-batch.301Botanical Guidance, supra note 287, at 4.  These issues will complicate preparation and review of the CMC section of the NDA.30221 C.F.R. § 314.50(d)(1)(i). The FDA’s guidance document indicates that “therapeutic consistency” can be supported using a totality of the evidence approach,” if the applicant submits information relating to the botanical raw material, quality control through chemical testing and manufacturing control, and biological assays or even clinical data.303Id.; see also Botanical Drug Review, supra note 239, at 2 (noting that the FDA will use a “totality of the evidence” approach, in order to overcome limitations in the ability to characterize the active ingredient (or mixture) and in order to respond to concerns about heterogeneity and batch-to-batch variability).  Describing the raw material includes explaining the agricultural and collection practices used. Botanical Guidance, supra note 287, at 4.  Quality control of the drug substance may consider factors such as strength by dry weight, chemical identification of active constituents (if known) or chemical constituents, quantification of active constituents (if known) or chemical constituents, and tests for residual pesticides.304Botanical Guidance, supra note 287, at 10–11.  A biological assay would need to reflect the drug’s known or intended mechanism of action.305Id. at 4.  If the active constituents are not known or quantifiable, it may be important to develop an assay to assess batch potency and activity relative to a reference standard.306Id. at 10.  The chemistry section should also include a thorough review of past human experience with the raw materials and known constituents.307Id. at 7–8.

The application of a “totality of the evidence” for botanical drugs means that some drugs that would not pass a traditional CMC review may survive review with the support of the Botanical Review Team.308Botanical Drug Review, supra note 239 (indicating that the CMC documentation for a botanical drug may be different from that for a synthetic or highly purified drug).  The primary chemistry reviewer in the Office of New Drugs considering Mytesi, for instance, concluded that issues relating to the identity, strength, purity, and quality of the drug substance and drug product precluded approval.309Fulyzaq Summary Review, supra note 295, at 4; see also FDA, Ctr. for Drug Evaluation and Res., Memorandum:  Botanical Secondary Review of NDA 2022928–11 (2012), https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2012/202292Orig1s000BotanicalR.pdf.  The botanical reviewer, by way of contrast, argued that these concerns stemmed from a “strict reading” of the regulations and definitions of “identity,” “active ingredient,” and “purity” from a “pure small molecule drug perspective.”310Fulyzaq Summary Review, supra note 295, at 2.  He argued that the regulations should be interpreted in a way that would “accommodate the complex nature of botanical drug substance.”311Id.  For example, he wrote, “the ‘identity’ of botanicals must include, in addition to the standard chemical analyses, the source of raw materials and other non-CMC data—e.g., identification of species, geographic location of harvesting, processing, and bioassay, if available.”312Id.  The botanical reviewer played a key role in pushing the agency’s thinking further.  For instance, he proposed a variety of ways to address uncertainty about batch-to-batch variability that did not appear in the 2004 version of the guidance document then in effect.  These included “pre-CMC” steps (such as controlling collection of raw materials to eco-geographic regions with good agricultural and collection practices) and “post-CMC” evidence (such as clinical evidence that therapeutic effect is not affected by batch-to-batch variation).  Id. at 4–5.  The Division Deputy Director agreed with the botanical reviewer’s view that “botanical new drugs can rarely have CMC specifications as precise as those of pure chemical drugs,” and “it is especially difficult to determine for botanical drugs with unknown number and identities of active ingredients (such as crofelemer) whether the future marketing batches will have the same therapeutic effects as that observed in clinical trials.”313Id. at 4.  Ultimately, the Director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research made the call, concluding—possibly in light of the “urgent need” for the product, which was intended for treatment of diarrhea in patients with HIV/AIDS—that “all of the CMC characterization” was not needed.314Id. at 12.  This history suggests that the agency’s willingness to be flexible in any particular case may depend a great deal on the views of a single botanical reviewer.  It could also depend on the support of agency leadership, who may focus on broader questions of public health.

     b.    Preclinical and clinical data

An NDA also contains several sections establishing the product’s safety and effectiveness.31521 C.F.R. § 314.50(d)(2)–(5)(2018). Generating the data in these sections requires a stepwise process beginning with laboratory and animal studies, (“preclinical” or “nonclinical” research), followed by several phases of human (“clinical”) trials that culminate in pivotal trials establishing effectiveness.316Fulzyaq Summary Review, supra note 295, at 5–6.

The general goal of preclinical research is to collect the data necessary to support the safety of early clinical trials.317Id. at 9.  In practice, the FDA expects both pharmacology tests, which consider how the drug works on various physiological systems and how the body processes the drug, and toxicology tests, which assess the drug’s short-term and long-term adverse effects.31821 C.F.R. § 312.23.  The applicant submits its preclinical data in an IND.  The amount of newly generated preclinical data needed for a botanical IND will depend on the human experience with the botanical drug to date.319Id.  But the FDA expects rigorous data on the nonclinical pharmacology and toxicology of the precise drug substance being developed, which means that anecdotal reports about the safety and effectiveness of cannabis—even if based on decades of illicit use or even reports of lawful medical use prior to enactment of the CSA—will not suffice. These data could reduce the amount of nonclinical testing required by the FDA, but they will not replace it.320The recently-enacted 21st Century Cures Act does not change this.  See generally Pub. L. No. 114-255, 130 Stat. 1033 (2016).  Congress directed the FDA to evaluate the potential use of “real world evidence” in approval decisions, but only in decisions to approve new indications for already approved drugs.  See 130 Stat. at 1096–98.  Moreover, this new provision of the statute does not alter the standard of approval, including the “substantial evidence” standard.  Id.

After the FDA permits an IND to go into effect, the company may conduct human testing.321The Drug Development Process, Step 3: Clinical Research, FDA, https://www.fda.gov /forpatients/approvals/drugs/ucm405622 (last visited Feb. 5, 2019).  The agency expects the pre-approval clinical testing process to advance through stages, from small groups of healthy volunteers, at the outset, to large multi-site trials in patients, designed and executed to provide statistically robust proof of safety and efficacy.322Id.  The agency’s regulations describe three phases of trials, but marching through three sequential, non-overlapping phases of testing is not required and may not always be the most effective or efficient way to proceed.323§ 312.21. Phase 1 trials generally involve administering the investigational drug to a very small number of healthy individuals primarily to gather safety data, such as safe dosage for future tests.  A company might use patients rather than healthy volunteers, however, if the drug is very potent or toxic and use in healthy volunteers would raise ethical issues. Phase 2 trials are designed to gather additional short-term safety data and dose range findings, but also effectiveness data.  They usually involve a small number of patients, perhaps as many as several hundred. Phase 3 studies are designed to determine whether the drug is safe and effective for the target indication and to more precisely identify any drug-related adverse effects.  They typically involve several hundred to several thousand patients and multiple sites, often in multiple countries.  Id.  The final pivotal trials are designed to establish that the drug satisfies the statutory approval standard:  “substantial evidence” of effectiveness.32421 U.S.C. § 355(f) (2012).  Substantial evidence means evidence consisting of “adequate and well-controlled” clinical trials, on the basis of which qualified experts could “fairly and responsibly” conclude that the drug has the effect claimed.325§ 355(d). The FDA generally expects two adequate and well-controlled trials, however, Congress amended the FDCA in 1997 to confirm that the agency may approve a drug on the basis of one, combined with “confirmatory evidence.”  See Food and Drug Modernization Act of 1997, Pub. L. No. 105-115, 111 Stat. 2296, 2313.

The FDA’s regulations flesh out the characteristics of an “adequate and well-controlled” trial.326See 21 C.F.R. § 314.126; see also Lietzan, supra note 46, at 51–54 (2018).  Such a trial has a protocol with a clear statement of objectives and a summary of the proposed method of analysis.327§ 314.126(b)(1).  It should use a design that permits a valid comparison with a control to provide a quantitative assessment of the drug’s effect, and the effect should be measured in a way that is well-defined and reliable.328§ 314.126(b)(2).  Subjects should be selected in a way that ensures they have the disease or condition being studied, and they should be assigned to treatment and control groups in a way that minimizes bias and ensures the arms are comparable.329§ 314.126(b)(3).  Additional measures should be taken to minimize bias on the part of the subjects as well as other participants in the trial, such as the investigators conducting the trial.330§ 314.126(b)(4).  Finally, the study report should include an appropriate statistical analysis of the results, sufficient to assess the drug’s effects.331§ 314.126(b)(7).  The gold standard approach is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled hypothesis-testing trial pursuant to a written protocol with a prespecified data analysis plan.  E.g., John Concato et al., Randomized,Controlled Trials, Observational Studies, and the Hierarchy of Research Designs, 342 New England J. Med. 1887 (2000); Laura E. Bothwell et al., Assessing the Gold Standard—Lessons from the History of RCTs, 374 New England J. Med. 2175 (2016).  That said, the substantial evidence standard can be surprisingly flexible when circumstances necessitate flexibility.  The FDA has approved new drugs on the basis of a single trial, on the basis of a single study in fewer than 10 patients, on the basis of studies without blinding or controls, and—indeed—without any efficacy testing in humans.  See, e.g., Frank J. Sasinowski & Alexander J. Varond, FDA’s Flexibility in Subpart H Approvals:  Assessing Quantum of Effectiveness Evidence, 71 Food & Drug L.J. 135, 139–41 (2016) (studying nineteen approvals granted by the FDA through its accelerated approval process for diseases and illnesses other than cancer and AIDS).

The clinical data requirements for approval of a botanical drug do not differ from the clinical data requirements for a non-botanical drug.332See, e.g., Veregen Botanical Review, supra note 295, at 2 (2006) (“For clinical data to support marketing approval, there should be no difference between botanical and non-botanical drugs.”).  Phase 3 trials of a botanical drug, including a drug containing cannabis, would have the same purpose and design requirements as any other phase 3 trials.  Clinical development of botanical drugs does, however, face some special issues, and clinical development of a cannabis-based botanical drug would face these issues.

First, a botanical drug substance can differ in its characteristics over the course of a drug development program.333Other drugs evolve during development, but the FDA has flagged this as an issue for botanical drugs in particular.  For instance, changes in the agricultural and collection practices for the raw material, or changes in the manufacturing process as result of process optimization, may lead to changes in drug substance composition.334Botanical Guidance, supra note 287, at 6.  Preclinical and clinical testing results that use earlier versions of the drug substance generally cannot be used in a marketing application without “bridging” studies that compare the versions.335Id.

Second, a botanical drug substance may vary in chemical composition from batch-to-batch.  The FDA will expect an applicant to explore the impact of batch-to-batch variability on the therapeutic effect of the botanical drug product and, in particular, to support an argument that expected variations will not cause a meaningful difference in therapeutic effect.336Id. at 15–16.  The agency has suggested using multiple batches in phase 3 trials, which may help an applicant understand (1) which variations are clinically relevant and (2) if they are clinically relevant, the range of variability that can be tolerated to maintain the product’s identity, safety, and efficacy.337Id.

Third, depending on the route of administration and therapeutic goal, it may be difficult to design an adequately blinded clinical trial with objective endpoints.338Id. at 12.  In some cases, it may be necessary to use a botanical in the control drug in order to mask the presence (or absence) of the active drug.339Id.  Senior leadership at the agency has also questioned whether blinding is possible if an investigational cannabis-based drug is administered through combustion (smoking) and have expressed concern about the subjectivity of the endpoints needed for many therapeutic goals of cannabis-based products.340See Marijuana Trials Should Aim for Higher Standard:  Superiority to Marinol, FDA’s Temple Suggests, Pink Sheet (Feb. 24, 1997).  Subjective endpoints can reduce the reliability of positive results from a trial and can lead the FDA to reject marketing applications.341FDA, Guidance for Industry, Investigators, and Reviewers: Exploratory IND Studies 11 (2006).

Finally, there is an open question of whether and how the FDA’s combination drug regulation will apply.342See generally 21 C.F.R. § 300.50 (2018).  Under this regulation, the sponsor of a drug product containing two active components must demonstrate that each component makes a contribution to the total effect that the combination is represented to have.343§ 300.50(a).  Traditionally, if both ingredients are directed to the same sign or symptom, the FDA expects a “factorial” study, which demonstrates that the combination has a larger treatment effect than either active ingredient alone.344Fixed-Combination and Co-Packaged Drugs:  Applications for Approval and Combinations of Active Ingredients Under Consideration for Inclusion in the Over-the-Counter Monograph, 80 Fed. Reg. 79,776, 79,785 (Dec. 23, 2015) (to be codified at 21 C.F.R. pts. 300, 330, and 610).  The agency has proposed to consider fresh or physically processed material derived from a single part of a single species of a plant as a single botanical raw material.345Id.at 79,780.  Thus a botanical drug product derived from a single part of a plant would not be subject to the fixed combination drug regulation.346Botanical Drug Review, supra note 239, at 2.  In contrast, a botanical product composed of multiple and easily separable parts of a single species of plant (e.g., flowers and bark of a woody plant) would continue to be subject to the combination drug requirements.347Id.  The agency has proposed waiving this regulation for a traditional botanical drug composed of multiple raw materials in a fixed ratio, at least if there are so many active ingredients that factorial studies to assess the contribution of each would be infeasible.34880 Fed. Reg. at 79,787.  Other botanical drug products would be deemed fixed combination drugs even though derived from a single botanical raw substance.349Id. at 79,781.

    c.    Route of administration

State-regulated medical cannabis today is mostly inhaled (vaporized or combusted), although increasing amounts are administered orally (for instance, in gel caps and oils) or even topically.350Mary Barna Bridgeman & Daniel T. Abazia, Medicinal Cannabis:  History, Pharmacology, and Implications for the Acute Care Setting, 42 Pharmacy & Therapeutics 180, 183 (2017).  A company developing a medical cannabis product for FDA approval could in theory consider any route of administration.  A drug’s route of administration can affect its dosing as well as its safety and effectiveness;351This is known to be true of cannabis in particular.  Id. (“The method of administration can impact the onset, intensity, and duration of psychoactive effects; effects on organ systems; and the addictive potential and negative consequences associated with use.”). however,  the route of administration will dictate some data requirements.352If a drug is meant to be inhaled, for instance, the FDA requires inhalation toxicity studies and may require carcinogenicity studies.  FDA, Nonclinical Safety Evaluation of Reformulated Drug Products and Products Intended for Administration by an Alternate Route:  Guidance for Industry and Review Staff 6 (2015).  As discussed in Section IV.A, the four approved cannabinoid drugs are administered orally.353See infra Section IV.A.  Other routes of administration may face additional hurdles at the agency.

The prospects for inhaled products, in particular, are unclear. Generally, inhaled drug products fall into three categories:  metered dose inhalers, dry powder inhalers, and nebulizers.354Shuguang Hou et al., Practical, Regulatory and Clinical Considerations for Development of Inhalation Drug Products, 10 Asian J. Pharm. Sci. 490, 491, 495–96 (2015) (defining metered dose inhalers as a suspension- or solution-based formulation of drugs propelled by hydrofluoroalkane propellants; dry powder inhalers as “a blend of micronized drug powder with larger carrier particles”; and nebulizers as a drug “formulated in aqueous solution or suspension, which is atomized into fine droplets via an external nebulization source”).  Some ongoing medical cannabis clinical research involves inhaled products; many involve combustion (smoking), but at least one involves a metered dose inhaler.355NCT02729623, The Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Ease of Use of a Portable Metered-Dose Cannabis Inhaler, ClinicalTrials.gov, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02729623 (last updated July 25, 2016).  But the agency has expressed skepticism.  When discussing medical cannabis, FDA leadership recently indicated the agency prefers that inhaled drugs be intended to treat the lungs.356Brenda Sandburg, Gottlieb on Medical Marijuana:  Smoking is Not Effective Way to Deliver API, Pink Sheet (Apr. 19, 2018), https://pink.pharmaintelligence. informa.com/PS122944/Gottlieb-On-Medical-Marijuana-Smoking-Is-Not-Effective-Way-To-Deliver-API (quoting Scott Gottlieb, the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, as saying, “We generally would prefer not to deliver drugs through the lung unless we were treating the lung in some fashion”). Most drugs approved for delivery through the lungs are intended to treat the lungs in some fashion.357Id.  For instance, Proventil-HFA (albuterol sulfate) and Flovent (fluticasone propionate) are marketed in pressurized metered dose inhalers for treatment of bronchospasm and asthma, respectively.  Shuguang, supra note 354, at 493.  Tobi Podhaler (tobramycin) is marketed as a powder for inhalation, which a patient self-administers for management of cystic fibrosis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, using a proprietary device. Id. at 493, 497.  AstraZeneca markets Pulmicort Respules (budesonide) for asthma in a suspension (liquid) for use with a nebulizer, which turns the liquid into a mist for inhalation into the lungs.  Id. at 493.  The agency’s resistance to inhalation could be overcome, however, with solid data on the effectiveness of this route of administration—such as evidence that inhalation leads to more consistent dosing than oral delivery.358Some research suggests that inhaled THC reaches its peak level in the body “nearly instantaneously” due to direct absorption by the capillaries in the lungs, leading to more consistent levels of the drug than an oral formulation.  Mack & Joy, supra note 81, at 143, 203.

Inhalation by combustion would face a higher hurdle. Agency officials have consistently expressed skepticism that combustion of cannabis would allow delivery of a consistent dose.359Researching the Potential Medical Benefits and Risks of Marijuana, FDA (2016) [hereinafter Researching Marijuana], https://www.fda.gov/newsevents/testimony/ ucm511057 (“When the Institute of Medicine (IOM) reviewed the clinical use of marijuana, it identified the problems associated with obtaining consistent dosing using smoked products and recommended that clinical trials involving marijuana should be conducted with the goal of developing safe, alternative delivery systems . . . .”); Sandburg, supra note 356 (quoting Commissioner Gottlieb that “the best way to deliver an active pharmaceutical ingredient is in a measured dose in a form where you can purify the ingredient and you know what you are getting and you can demonstrate dose effect and you can provide a reliable treatment to a patient,” which “generally is probably not going to come from something that is smoked”).  The FDA would expect an applicant to address the risk of pulmonary cancer and other respiratory tract diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particularly if the combustible product were intended for chronic use. This could entail long-term safety studies before approval, and—depending on the intended use—some findings might preclude approval.360See Ethan Russo et al., Current Status and Future of Cannabis Research, Clinical Researcher 58, 59 (Apr. 2015) (“Meanwhile, although cannabis smoking may not be epidemiologically linked to lung cancer, it is responsible for chronic cough, sputum, and cytological changes, which render smoked cannabis an impossible candidate for approval as a prescription product in most jurisdictions.”).  Because the approval decision requires benefits and risks to be considered together, it is likely that even these risks would be acceptable to the agency for some uses.  Although the FDA permits numerous clinical trials of smoked cannabis for medical conditions, the agency’s view seems to be that “the purpose of clinical trials of smoked cannabis would not be to develop cannabis as a licensed drug but rather to serve as a first step toward the development of non-smoked rapid-onset cannabinoid delivery systems.”361Researching Marijuana, supra note 359. If the agency permitted an inhalable cannabis-based product, the product might be considered a “combination product” (combining a drug and device).  The phrase “combination product” includes a drug and device that are physically combined and produced as a single entity (such as a patch that delivers an active ingredient), as well as a drug and device that are packaged together (such as a nebulizer and suspension).  21 C.F.R. § 3.2(e) (2018).  In this case, the company would need to consider both drug and medical device regulatory issues.  As a practical matter, the analysis is unlikely to change.  A combination product’s “primary mode of action”—the single mode of action that provides its most important therapeutic action—dictates which part of the FDA will review the premarket submission.  21 U.S.C. § 353(g)(1)(C) (2012).  The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) would almost certainly take the lead on premarket review of a cannabis-derived drug product.  Combination products are typically regulated under the marketing authorization associated with the component that provides the primary mode of action, meaning that this product would probably still require only an NDA.  See 21 U.S.C. § 353(g)(1)(D).  In some cases, though, the agency will require a second premarket submission tied to the second constituent part.  An alternative in this case would be to use a device that the FDA has already approved or cleared for the market.

Cannabis-based drugs presented in dosage forms that are not intended for inhalation (especially combustion) are less likely to raise complex regulatory issues and less likely to meet resistance from the agency.  But each route of administration and dosage form will present issues for consideration.  Topically administered drugs in solution or gel form, for instance, may present safety issues if physical contact with others can transfer the active ingredient.362See, e.g., Medication Guide:  Androgel (2016), https://www.rxabbvie .com/pdf/androgel1_62_medguide.pdf (advising users to wash their hands “right away” after application). Concerns about transfer could lead to additional premarket testing requirements and, if appropriate, special safety controls after approval.363For instance, testosterone in gel form is approved for treatment of men with a testosterone deficiency but it can rub off on women and children, causing early puberty in a child. Companies developing topical testosterone products are generally required to conduct transfer studies, and the drugs are approved with special risk management measures.  For instance, Androgel® (testosterone) is distributed with a “Medication Guide” that instructs patients to apply the drug to areas of their shoulders, upper arms, and abdomen that will be covered by a t-shirt and to wash their hands immediately.  See id.  The agency’s guidance documents and precedents are key to understanding what might be required in any particular case, but it is safe to say that orally administered products in traditional dosage forms (tablet, capsule, and solution) are the least likely to face unexpected regulatory hurdles.

3.    Approval and risk management

Approval of a new drug represents the FDA’s conclusion that the benefits of the drug outweigh its risks when the drug is used in accordance with its approved labeling.364See 21 C.F.R. § 314.50(d)(5)(viii) (requiring NDAs to discuss “why the benefits exceed the risks under the conditions stated in the labeling”); see also United States v. Rutherford, 442 U.S. 544, 555 (1979) (“[T]he [FDA] generally considers a drug safe when the expected therapeutic gain justifies the risk entailed by its use.”); FDA, Critical Path Opportunities Report R-8 (March 2006), https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20180125142845/https://www.fda.gov/downloads/ScienceResearch/SpecialTopics/CriticalPathInitiative/CriticalPathOpportunitiesReports/UCM077254.pdf (suggesting approval once “uncertainty” about benefit-risk balance has been “reduced to an acceptable level”).  The agency would make several additional risk management decisions when approving a cannabis-based drug.

First, the FDA would likely designate a cannabis-derived drug product as a prescription product.  Prescription status is required for any drug that is “not safe for use except under the supervision of” licensed prescribers because of its “toxicity or other potentiality for harmful effect, or the method of its use, or the collateral measures necessary to its use.”36521 U.S.C. § 353(b).  If cannabis and THC were rescheduled rather than descheduled, the CSA would require that the product be sold only on prescription.  See 21 C.F.R. § 1306.11 (requiring a written prescription for the distribution of any Schedule II substance); § 1306.21 (requiring a prescription for the distribution of any Schedule III, IV, or V substance).  Although the FDA considers these and related factors when deciding whether to switch a drug from prescription to nonprescription status,366The FDA considers a variety of factors, such as the ability of patients to self-diagnose and follow treatment instructions, public health considerations, such as whether a prescription requirement would be an impediment to timely treatment in emergency situations, and possibly even social policy.  See generally Peter Barton Hutt, A Legal Framework for Future Decisions on Transferring Drugs from Prescription to Nonprescription Status, 37 Food Drug Cosm. L.J. 427 (1982). as a practical matter, almost every new drug is first approved today as a prescription drug.367Id. at 428.  The agency might also be reluctant to permit a cannabis-based drug to be available over the counter if others are limited to prescription status—particularly if the prescription products are intended for treatment of serious conditions and generally require a physician’s involvement. Some active ingredients are available in both prescription and nonprescription form,368Examples include ibuprofen and fluticasone propionate. but the possibility that patients needing medical attention might self-treat with the nonprescription cannabis-based product would give the agency pause.

Second, as a prescription drug, a cannabis-based drug—whether edible, inhaled, ingested, or applied topically—would require FDA-approved labeling for prescribers.  Agency regulations specify the format and content of this labeling, which is meant to summarize and distill the safety and effectiveness information in the marketing application so that prescribers can make informed judgments about treatment.369See 21 C.F.R. § 201.57; Requirements on Content and Format of Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products, 71 Fed. Reg. 3,922 (Jan. 24, 2006) (to be codified at 21 C.F.R. pts. 201, 314, and 601).  In addition to information about the preclinical and clinical studies supporting approval, the labeling must describe the overall adverse reaction profile of the drug based on the entire safety database, as well as clinically significant adverse reactions and other safety hazards.37071 Fed. Reg. at 3,922.  The labeling must present information about “drug abuse” and “dependence,” even if the drug is not controlled, describe clinically significant interactions with other prescription medicines (as well as nonprescription drugs, foods, and dietary supplements), discuss use in special populations such as pregnant and breastfeeding women, and advise about the signs and symptoms of overdose and recommended treatment of overdose.371Id. at 3,994.

Third, in some cases, the FDA might decide that the risks associated with the product require the adoption of special risk management measures. The agency could, for example, require the company to distribute patient labeling, a “Medication Guide,” explaining the key risks associated with the drug and any special measures that should be taken (such as avoiding driving and consumption of alcohol) when using the drug.37221 C.F.R. §§ 208.1, 208.20.  If the FDA concludes that the drug’s benefits outweigh its risks only with special risk management measures in place, it will require the company to implement a “risk evaluation and mitigation strategy.”373Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS), FDA, https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/REMS/default.htm (last updated Feb. 2, 2018).  In particular, if necessary to mitigate a specific serious risk listed in the drug’s labeling, the agency can impose use and distribution restrictions.37421 U.S.C. § 355-1(f)(3) (2012).  These might include limiting the drug to prescribers with special training or requiring that all patients be entered in a registry.375§§ 355-1(f)(3)(A), (F). Particularly if the agency had concerns about dependence or misuse of a cannabis-based drug product, it might impose access restrictions.  Descheduling of cannabis, THC, and cannabimimetics would not preclude this.

Nevertheless, the risks and benefits of a new drug are never fully understood at the time of approval.  This would be true of any cannabis-based new drug product, despite the long history of medical and non-medical use of cannabis.376Russo, supra note 54, at 1614.  The FDA’s concern is the safety and effectiveness of the particular dosage form, strength, patient population, and use at issue. Risk management, which includes monitoring and responding to risk, is therefore the dominant feature of postmarket regulation of new drugs.37721 U.S.C. § 355-1.  The FDA may require a company to conduct postmarket testing, as a condition of approval, to assess known risks or even to assess signals that emerged during premarket testing.378See § 355(o)(3).  Both approved botanical drugs were subject to postmarket testing obligations.379For instance, the FDA required Salix Pharmaceuticals, which holds the NDA for Mytesi, to conduct two rodent carcinogenicity studies.  See FDA, Ctr. Drug Evaluation & Res., NDA Approval: NDA 202292, https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/ drugsatfda_docs/appletter/2012/202292Orig1s000ltr.pdf (last visited Feb. 5, 2019).  The company also committed to an in vitro and an in vivo study in humans to further explore the pharmacodynamics of crofelemer, as well as additional analytical work and additional work on its bioassays. Id.  And regardless of whether the agency imposed postmarket testing as a condition of approval, any company that held an approved NDA for a cannabis-based drug product would be required to evaluate and report any adverse events of which it became aware.380See21 C.F.R. § 314.80 (2018).  These reports, in turn, could lead to labeling changes or more significant requirements, such as new studies or access restrictions.38121 U.S.C. §§ 355(o)(3)–(4); 21 C.F.R. § 201.57(c)(6)(i).

The Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970 (PPPA)382Pub. L. No. 91-601, 84 Stat. 1670 (codified at 15 U.S.C. §§ 1471–77). would also apply to cannabis-derived drug products and might require the manufacturer to adopt special packaging.383§ 1472.  The PPPA applies to any food or drug customarily produced or distributed for sale for consumption or use by individuals in or about the household.384§ 1471(2).  The Consumer Product Safety Commission’s implementing regulations require that any prescription drug intended for oral administration be packaged in accordance with its “special packaging” standards.38516 C.F.R. § 1700.14(a)(10).  The general idea is that the packaging must be reasonably convenient for adults to open and yet designed so that young children cannot easily obtain the contents.386§ 1700.14.  Thus, the company would have to use packaging that provided a specified degree of child resistance, confirmed using testing procedures also specified in the regulations.387§§ 1700.15, 1700.20.  At the same time, the packaging would need to satisfy “ease of adult opening” standards, which must be similarly tested in both senior adults and younger adults according to the agency’s testing standards.388§ 1700.15.

4.    Consequences of using the new drug pathway

The new drug research and development process is notoriously expensive and risky.  For a new chemical entity, it can take ten to twelve years and cost more than $1 billion.389Joseph A. DiMasi et al., Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry:  New Estimates of R&D Costs, 47 J. Health Econ. 20, 25–27 (2016) (estimating average out-of-pocket cost per approved compound of $1.4 billion and total preapproval cost of $2.56 billion); Erika Lietzan, The Myths of Data Exclusivity, 20 Lewis & Clark L. Rev. 91, 107–08 (2016) (discussing range of estimates for the length of time and cost of developing a new drug).  Prior and longstanding use of cannabis for medical and non-medical purposes may reduce some of the risk, for instance, by identifying promising uses and suggesting the appropriate dosing.  Also, the agency’s flexibility with botanical NDAs may reduce some of the cost, where it applies.  Pursuing new drug approval for medical cannabis after descheduling could, however, still cost hundreds of millions of dollars.  This will put the process out of reach for most entities currently providing medical cannabis.390See Alex Halperin, What Will Rescheduling Marijuana Mean for the Pot Industry?, Rolling Stone (Apr. 20, 2016), https://www.rollingstone.com/culture/culture-news/what-will-rescheduling-marijuana-mean-for-the-pot-industry-203124 (“If the federal government determines that medical marijuana must be subjected to FDA approval, companies would have to enter a process that can take years to complete and cost more than $1 billion per product.  Few, if any, cannabis companies in the U.S. have the resources for that, which might open the door for Big Pharma to muscle in and take over the business.”).  Yet avoiding the new drug approval process is not an option; medical claims on any product in interstate commerce will trigger the FDA’s new drug authorities and require an approved NDA.391See supra Section III.A.1.

Even well-established biopharmaceutical companies might eschew development of cannabis-based products.  It is not clear a cannabis-based product would enjoy enough exclusivity in the market for a company to recoup its investment and earn a profit.  U.S. law provides exclusivity (as an incentive for new drug research) through two mechanisms—patent protection and regulatory exclusivity—but the value of these for cannabis-based drugs is unclear.392Lietzan, supra note 46, at 56 (2018).  Patent protection would preclude any other company from making, using, or selling the patented invention for a fixed period of time.393See 21 U.S.C. §§ 355(c)(3)(E), 355(j)(5)(F).  But a company could not patent the cannabis plant itself, and it may not be possible to patent the medical uses of cannabis that have been known for years.394See 35 U.S.C. § 102(a)(1) (preventing a person from obtaining a patent if the product was “described in printed publication, or in public use, or otherwise available to the public” before the patent was filed).  It may be possible to patent genetically engineered cannabis plants, methods of cultivating the plants, and methods of manufacturing cannabis-based products. Newer methods of treatment and delivery devices, among other things, may also be patentable.395See generally Gretchen L. Temeles et al., IP Protection and the Cannabis Industry:  Strategies and Trends, Legal Intelligencer (April 2, 2018, 2:10 PM), https://www.law.com/thelegalintelligencer/2018/04/02/ip-protection-and-the-cannabis-industry-strategies-and-trends (describing cannabis-related patents to date).  And regulatory exclusivity will prevent submission, or in some cases approval, of other applications at the FDA for a fixed period of time.396E.g., 21 U.S.C. § 355(j)(5)(F)(ii) (prohibiting submission of a generic drug application for five years after approval of a new chemical entity, meaning an active moiety not previously approved in an NDA); 21 U.S.C. § 360cc (providing seven years of “orphan drug” exclusivity for drugs approved for treatment of rare diseases).  Patent protection and regulatory exclusivity could motivate the larger companies to invest in the research and development needed for approval of a cannabis-based product. These companies could, however, be concerned about competition from cannabis-based products that are labeled for other conditions or, indeed, that are marketed without medical claims at all.  Without a reasonable assurance of actual exclusivity in the marketplace, these companies might pursue other projects instead.

B.    Medical Cannabis as (or in) Food

Cannabis as it is currently sold and used is unlikely to qualify as food in itself, and an extract from cannabis presented as a single-ingredient product would similarly not qualify.  Rather than focusing on intended use as it does for drugs, the FDCA defines food by its actual use.  Food, thus, is any “article[] used for food or drink for man.”39721 U.S.C. § 321(f)(1).  The FDA interprets this to mean any item consumed primarily “for taste, aroma, or nutritional value.”398Nutrilab, Inc. v. Schweiker, 547 F. Supp. 880, 883 (N.D. Ill. 1982), aff’d, 713 F.2d 335 (7th Cir. 1983).

Arguably, neither cannabis nor a single-ingredient cannabis extract product would satisfy this test.  There is, however, some evidence that cannabis seeds, leaves, and other parts of the plant were historically eaten as food, whether by themselves or in combination with other foodstuffs.399